Eutrophication is a leading cause of impairment of many freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems in the world.
Why should we worry about eutrophication and how is this problem managed?
Some algal blooms pose an additional threat because they produce noxious toxins (e.g., microcystin and anatoxin-a.
Over the past century, harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been linked with
(1) degradation of water quality,
(2) destruction of economically important fisheries, and
(3) public health risks (Morris 1999).
Within freshwater ecosystems, cyanobacteria are the most important phytoplankton associated with HABs. Toxigenic cyanobacteria, including Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, Microcystis, and Oscillatoria (Planktothrix), tend to dominate nutrient-rich, freshwater systems due to their superior competitive abilities under high nutrient concentrations, low nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratios, low light levels, reduced mixing, and high temperatures.
Poisonings of domestic animals, wildlife, and even humans by blooms of toxic cyanobacteria have been documented throughout the world and date back to Francis’ (1878) first observation of dead livestock associated with a bloom of cyanobacteria.
Furthermore, cyanobacteria are responsible for several off-flavor compounds (e.g., methylisoborneal and geosmin) found in municipal drinking water systems
How does it get its nice mellow flavor and just what’s going on in the 53 gallon oak barrel aging for decades?
Here to talk about that is Thomas Collins.
He’s the director of research for the food safety and measurement facility, University California, Davis.
I studied oak aroma and flavor chemistry for the wine industry.
At the time, I worked for a large winery in California that owned a cooperage and we did a lot of work looking at oak chemistry and how it impacts the flavor of wines.
the toasting process and whether this is toasting for wine or toasting for whiskey or charring for whiskey … toasting is the process once the barrel has been formed into shape, of heating it over a fire to basically heat it enough to break down some of the structural components of the wood itself.
And so you get some flavor compounds that are released from the breakdown of lignin or cellulose or some of the other structural components of the wood.
And then, when you put wine, or in this case whiskey, into that barrel, ethanol is a very good solvent and it will extract some of those components from the wood itself and that becomes part of the composition of the wine or the whiskey.