It’s much harder to pay an expert

conspicuous_effortFairness and reciprocity

It’s easy for us to pay for something that requires conspicuous effort, but much harder to pay an expert who performs the job effortessly

There’s an interesting point:
We might want to express to people the amount of hard work. If you are the locksmith, you might want to show your hard work. If you are the mechanic, you might want to show people your hard work.

Because determining value is so difficult, we use shortcuts–like assessing the level of effort required to produce something.

2.5 Fairness and reciprocity
A Beginner’s Guide to Irrational Behavior
Duke University

cf. effort in:


The neurobiology of punishment

Neurobiological substrates of punishment.

The neurobiology of punishment
Nature Reviews Neuroscience 8, 300-311 (April 2007)
Ben Seymour, Tania Singer & Ray Dolan

Animals, in particular humans, frequently punish other individuals who behave negatively or uncooperatively towards them.
In animals, this usually serves to protect the personal interests of the individual concerned, and its kin.
However, humans also punish altruistically, in which the act of punishing is personally costly.
The propensity to do so has been proposed to reflect the cultural acquisition of norms of behaviour, which incorporates the desire to uphold equity and fairness, and promotes cooperation.

Here, we review the proximate neurobiological basis of punishment, considering the motivational processes that underlie punishing actions.