Wong, C., Odom, S. L., Hume, K. et al. (2014). Evidence-based practices for children, youth, and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, Autism Evidence-Based Practice Review Group.
ASD is identified by two primary diagnostic markers: difficulties in social communication and restricted or repetitive behaviors and interests.
Examples of difficulties in social communication include challenges in social reciprocity, nonverbal social behaviors, and establishment of social relationships. Restrictive and repetitive behaviors include stereotypic behavior or speech, excessive adherence to routines, and highly fixated interests.
ASD is diagnosed about three times more frequently in boys than in girls.
Intellectual disability was once thought to be a condition that typically accompanied ASD; however, current estimates are that 35% of individuals with ASD score above the IQ cutoff (i.e., around 70 depending on the test) for intellectual disability (Dykens & Lense, 2011).
the Cochrane Collaboration to host reviews of the literature about scientifically supported practices in medicine (http://www.cochrane.org).
The subsequent adoption of the evidence-based conceptual approach in the social sciences is exemplified in the work of the Campbell Collaboration (http://www.campbellcollaboration.org ) and currently the What Works Clearinghouse (http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc )
Oxytocin enhances brain function in children with autism
PNAS. December 24, 2013. 110(52)
This article presents our discovery that intranasal administration of oxytocin enhances activity in the brain for socially meaningful stimuli and attenuates its response to nonsocially meaningful stimuli in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as measured via functional MRI. We also identified a relationship between changes in salivary oxytocin following administration and enhancements in brain function.
These discoveries are particularly important given the urgent need for treatments that target the core social dysfunction in ASD. The functional neural attunement we demonstrated might facilitate social learning, thus potentially bringing about long-term change in neural systems and subsequent behavioral improvements.
Our results illustrate the power of a translational neuroscience approach to facilitate the development of pharmacological interventions for neurodevelopmental disorders like ASD.
Promoting social behavior with oxytocin …
PNAS February 16, 2010
DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry
The new guidebook, DSM-5, contains significant changes to the criteria currently used to diagnose autism, including incorporating several diagnoses into the single diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). AACAP crafted a list of Frequently Asked Questions to help families who have a child with autism understand the impact of these changes.
In addition, we updated the Fact for Families on Asperger’s. For more information, visit AACAP’s Autism Resource Center.
AACAP also created a new Facts for Families on the new diagnosis Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD).