Paradigm shift: 21 distinct senses

What Is A Paradigm Shift, Anyway?
July 18, 2016
Tania Lombrozo

Thomas Kuhn‘s 1962 book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, transformed the philosophy of science and changed the way many scientists think about their work. But his influence extended well beyond the academy: The book was widely read — and seeped into popular culture. One measure of his influence is the widespread use of the term “paradigm shift,” which he introduced in articulating his views about how science changes over time.

In a paper published in 1970, Margaret Masterson presented a careful reading of Kuhn’s 1962 book. She identified 21 distinct senses in which Kuhn used the term paradigm.

Interactive notebooks: IPython

Interactive notebooks: Sharing the code
The free IPython notebook makes data analysis easier to record, understand and reproduce.
05 November 2014

“In my own computational physics work,” says Granger, “a high-level description of the algorithm that goes into the paper is light years away from the details that are written in the code.
Without those details, there is no way that someone could reproduce it in a reasonable time scale.”

“We used to speak two different languages. I would talk about the biology and she would talk about coding.
Now we have common ground; we can communicate to each other better. This accelerates our research”


Science is not purely objective.


We less often recognize the subtle ways in which value commitments masquerade as objective truth.
What are three not-so-obvious ways values enter psychology?

Scientists and philosophers agree: Science is not purely objective.
Scientists do not simply read the book of nature.
Rather, they interpret nature, using their own mental categories.
In our daily lives, too, we view the world through the lens of our preconceptions.
Whether we see a moving light in the sky as a flying saucer or see a face in a pie crust depends on our perceptual set.

Chapter 1. Introducing Social Psychology
Myers, D. G. (2012). Social psychology (11th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Red Queen hypothesis

Red Queen hypothesis

an evolutionary hypothesis which proposes that organisms must constantly adapt, evolve, and proliferate not merely to gain reproductive advantage, but also simply to survive while pitted against ever-evolving opposing organisms in an ever-changing environment.

The phenomenon’s name is derived from a statement that the Red Queen made to Alice in Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking-Glass in her explanation of the nature of Looking-Glass Land:
Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place.