Cat Litter Suspect In Nuclear Waste Accident

Organic Cat Litter Chief Suspect In Nuclear Waste Accident
May 23, 2014
http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2014/05/23/315279895/organic-kitty-litter-chief-suspect-in-nuclear-waste-accident

In February, a 55-gallon drum of radioactive waste burst open inside America’s only nuclear dump, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico.

Now investigators believe the cause may have been a pet store purchase gone bad.

“It was the wrong kitty litter,” says James Conca, a geochemist in Richland, Wash., who has spent decades in the nuclear waste business.

It turns out there’s more to cat litter than you think. It can soak up urine, but it’s just as good at absorbing radioactive material.

“It actually works well both in the home litter box as well as the radiochemistry laboratory,” says Conca

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A Radiation Detector In Your Smartphone

Weekly Innovation: A Radiation Detector In Your Smartphone
January 23, 2014
http://www.npr.org/blogs/alltechconsidered/2014/01/17/263369742/weekly-innovation-a-radiation-detector-in-your-smartphone

A smartphone camera can make you a walking gamma ray detector.
Without needing any extra hardware, you could get a warning on your phone when you’re approaching potentially harmful levels of gamma radiation.

Scientists at Idaho National Laboratory created an Android app (the system is called CellRAD) for turning smartphone cameras into radiation detectors, and tested it with four smartphone models (Samsung Nexus S, Samsung Galaxy Nexus, Samsung SIII and LG Nexus 4).

They concluded that the phones have the processing power to detect gamma radiation with their built-in cameras and to measure levels on the phone. With the help of a program on a remote server, the app captures and measures an average energy level, then uses a model to figure out what types of radioactive material could be emitting the radiation. Basically, once your phone has been calibrated with the app, you’ll have a radiation detector in your pocket.

The principle behind this isn’t new — scientists know that charge-coupled devices (or CCDs used in cameras) can detect X-rays. But now our phones have the computing power to figure out what the source of radiation is, and eliminate false positives that can happen just because your phone is warm.

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission says members of the public shouldn’t be exposed to more than 0.1 rem of radiation a year

related:
https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2013/12/27/even-disconnected-computers-may-face-cyberthreats

https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2013/10/22/invisible-colors

http://www.npr.org/2015/08/18/432762366/scientists-develop-app-to-turn-smartphones-into-cosmic-ray-detectors

RF radiation
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s-oJnvCZrt4

Radiation types

Alpha particles. Beta particles. Gamma rays

Radiation types
BBC News. 28 November 2006

– Alpha particles are stopped by a sheet of paper and cannot pass through unbroken skin

– Beta particles are stopped by an aluminum sheet

– Gamma rays are stopped by thick lead

Coal Loses Crown As King Of Power Generation

Coal Loses Crown As King Of Power Generation
January 11, 2013
http://www.npr.org/2013/01/11/169153322/coal-loses-crown-as-king-of-power-generation

Just a few years ago, Georgia Power generated nearly three-fourths of its electricity with coal. Last year, for the first time, natural gas edged out coal, and just this week the company announced plans to close 10 coal-fired power generators within the next few years.

within a few years only a third of the company’s power plants will run on coal.
The company has already built three new natural gas plants. It’s expanding a nuclear plant and going bigger into solar and wind

The dramatic and swift shift away from coal at Georgia Power is part of a nationwide trend: After decades in which coal was king of electricity generation, natural gas is making a bid for the title.

The development already has shrunk the electricity industry’s environmental footprint and reduced prices on wholesale power.

One factor is the expectation that low prices for natural gas will continue because of the shale gas boom across the country.

Another is that new federal rules require coal plants to clean up the mercury and other toxic chemicals in their exhausts.
Installing those pollution controls makes no sense when gas is so cheap.

He says whether the trend continues after 2018 depends on several factors:
– how much the economy and demand for electricity pick up
– whether natural gas prices stay low
– if the federal government comes up with new regulations to limit greenhouse gases and clean up solid wastes from existing power plants

Shea predicts coal will not be the only loser in what he calls electric companies’ “dash to gas.” “We’re not seeing any new coal built,” he says. “But we’re also are not seeing much occurring in the nuclear sphere.
And importantly, the price of gas right now is starting to freeze out the demand for renewables.”

Still, natural gas is cleaner than coal, so the shift from coal already has decreased overall greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation.

But Brune cautions that we can’t rely on natural gas to stabilize the climate and stop the catastrophic effects of global warming that we got a taste of last year. Brune says that means the country has to figure out a way to make the shift to natural gas a temporary one.

see also:
Miners Weather The Slow Burn Of Coal’s Demise
July 14, 2012
http://www.npr.org/2012/07/14/156784701/miners-weather-the-slow-burn-of-coals-demise

The Business And Politics Of Air Quality Regulation

The Business And Politics Of Air Quality Regulation
June 20, 2013
http://www.npr.org/2013/06/20/193914025/the-business-and-politics-of-air-quality-regulation

Guests:

Keith Johnson, energy and business reporter, The Wall Street Journal

Chris Field, director of the Carnegie Institution’s Department of Global Ecology at Stanford University

Terrence Henry, reporter, State Impact Texas

plans on climate change that would include power plants.
Both industry and activists have been expecting decisions that would reduce reliance on coal and boost the use of the natural gas, wind, solar and nuclear energy, all controversial.

any power plant has to have a certain level of emissions, and it wasn’t a very high level of emissions.

the draft standard that the administration presented actually would have even ruled out a number of gas plants. I mean, the standard was so stringent it would’ve actually ruled out a number of gas plants.

for new plants it’s probably safe to say that it’s going to be difficult in the future to build coal plants, at least in an economical fashion in this country.

this is all authority under the Clean Air Act. You know, this is a Bush, you know, 41-era legislation. This is from 1990.
The Clean Air Act gives them authority to regulate these emissions.

Congress took a stab back in 2009, 2010 at climate change legislation, which would have tried to set up a market mechanism. That died. That went nowhere in the Senate. So what had been a threat, EPA action through executive authority, became the default option, and that’s where we are today.

And if, broadly speaking, the coal industry is the loser, who are the winners here?

JOHNSON: Well, obviously natural gas has is a winner, but natural gas has been a winner for the last few years.

So if natural gas is going to be a winner, what about renewable sources – solar, wind – that sort of thing?

JOHNSON: You know, they’ve had a lot of progress in the last couple of years. When President Obama came in, he said he wanted to double the amount of renewable energy in the country, and he’s done that. Again, that was from a relatively small baseline. It’s a relatively small percentage of U.S. power supply. But, yes, there is an awful lot of renewable energy.

These new regulations aren’t going to be the kind of spur, necessarily, for renewable energy, you know, that could jumpstart that sector. There’s other policies you would need in order to make solar a much bigger player in the mix or to make wind energy a much bigger player in the mix.

CONAN: And what about nuclear power?

JOHNSON: Well, nuclear power lately has had the problem – it’s had problems for a number of years, but economics is first and foremost the problem with nuclear power. Cheap gas, you know, may have pushed aside coal. It may have made wind power less competitive, but it really damaged the economic prospects of nuclear power.

And that’s because it costs an awful lot to build a nuclear power plant.
So as gas gets more expensive, nuclear power gets marginally more appealing. But again, these are eight-, 10-year projects in order to make a nuclear power plant. There’s only a couple underway in the U.S.

In 2012, global emissions of carbon dioxide were more than 35 billion tons. They’ve been increasing at a rate of more than two percent a year since the year 2000. And the emissions of electricity are incredibly important. They represent 33 percent of the U.S. emissions. Coal represents 80 percent of those. It’s a big deal not only because it’s a big source of a rapidly growing emissions pool but because they’re real opportunities for the U.S. to exhibit a leadership position on this.

CONAN: The U.S. exhibiting leadership position. At the same time, the U.S. is increasing its exports of coal to places like China, which is building new coal-fired power plants rapidly. Does it make a difference globally whether American coal is burned in Kentucky or whether it’s burned in Shanghai?

U.S. emissions are a significant fraction. If you multiply the fraction of U.S. total emissions by the electricity, by the coal part, over 4 percent of total global greenhouse gas emissions are from U.S. coal and the electricity sector. And that’s a meaningful part, and it’s a part that we can have an impact on.

Picture:
Gemasolar. Taken on May 7, 2009
http://www.flickr.com/photos/greensmps/7416845900

Gemasolar:
http://www.torresolenergy.com/TORRESOL/gemasolar-plant/en

New York. CarbonVisuals.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DtqSIplGXOA

Renewable Energy as Share of Total Primary Energy Consumption

Renewable_energy_2011_June302013Renewable Energy as Share of Total Primary Energy Consumption

Annual Energy Review
Release Date: September 2012
Next Update: August 2013
http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/annual/index.cfm