Reasoning Tools (2016)

The Psychology of Thinking – with Richard Nisbett
The Royal Institution, Jun 22, 2016
Reasoning Tools for the Information Age

6:22
Vocabulary has increased
The more words you have, the more concepts you have.
The more concepts you have, the smarter you hare.
related:
https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2015/06/10/why-our-iq-levels-are-higher-than-our-grandparents

7:34
Calculus is routinely taught in high school

7:40
there’s been no continuous change: Scandinavia
Scandinavia does a better job than the rest of us bringing up the bottom
industrial revolution skills

10:18
Examples of the new tools: Statistics and probability theory
– sample
– population
– sample bias
– randomness
– law of large numbers (23:30)
– normal distribution
– standard deviation
– statistical significance
– regression to the mean (29:27-> 32:32)
26:57 sophomore slump, second novels, albums
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophomore_slump
– base rate
– correlation (odds) 17:55
Perceived and actual correlations acrross two occasions and across 20 (21:44)
+ abilities (test scores)
+ traits (honesty)

10:47 Scientific methodology
– control group
– randomized control experiment
– confounded variable
multiple regression analysis (39:40)
control for social class: the prestige of their occupation
– self-selection
– independence of observations
– natural experiment
– artifact

11:01 Decision Theory
– cost/benefit analysis
– opportunity cost (48:59)
– sunk cost (52:31)
– loss aversion
26:57 sophomore slump, second novels, albums
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophomore_slump
– base rate
– correlation (odds) 17:55
Perceived and actual correlations acrross two occasions and across 20 (21:44)
+ abilities (test scores)
+ traits (honesty)

regression_to_the_mean2016

regression_analysis2

opportunity_cost

actions_as_costs

sunk_cost

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Cross-Situational Learning

Cross-Situational Learning
in chapter: Open Learning Environments
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263696402_Cross-Situational_Learning
Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning,
Springer, 2012
Editors: N. Seel
https://www.springer.com/us/book/9781441914279?gclid=EAIaIQobChMItpqF0K6W4gIVUNbACh0HNAgBEAQYAiABEgIqpvD_BwE

Synonyms:
associative learning

children learn a lexicon containing many thousands of associations between
words and their meanings, at the rate of around ten new words a day.

Word Wizardry (Susan B. Neuman)

words_at_end_high_schoolWord Wizardry: Vocabulary Enhancement in Early Childhood, Prek Through Grade 1
by Susan B. Neuman
https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/3493773334438999553

34:41 Children learn through frequency of words. we had to repeat a word 28 different times, in different ways, for a child to easily remember that word.

43:41 is there a vocabulary-rich environment?

[related: https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2013/03/13/serendipitous-interaction-key-to-tech-firms-workplace-design-audio]

44:40 book desserts: children don’t have access to books

46:23 books in every c…

47:05 compare & contrast

engage in justification

53: thematic vs. categories

57:  8-10 words each week
Opportunities for GUIDED PRACTICE:
– pictures; rhymes; riddles
– call and response techniques

58: GUIDED PRACTICE: you’re there to correct the student immediately

1:00 informal children monitoring

How are these things all alike?

Vocabulary: explicit vs. implicit
December 12, 2012
http://www.readingrockets.org/blogs/common-core-classroom/55272
Isabel Beck’s Book, Bringing Words to Life

https://www.earlychildhoodwebinars.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Slides-3-per-page_Word-Wizardry_09_20_2016.pdf

vocabulary_size_factors

https://www.edutopia.org/blog/teaching-ccss-critical-vocabulary-marilee-sprenger
4. let students compose jingles or songs for words and definitions
9. Create vocabulary word pages in a notebook.

Dr. Joan Kang Shin

Literacy Instruction for Young EFL Learners
2016
National Geographic Learning: Young Learners
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCYuzKEv8KcxMlXQxy0UIzog

Dr. Joan Kang Shin discusses how literacy activities can be introduced with learners as young as pre-school age and provide the building blocks for balanced literacy programming for young EFL learners.

conceptual habilities in L2

16:00 phonological awareness

17:16 phonemic awareness

Green Eggs and Ham
20:12 Chicka Chicka

23:56 Hot Potato Game

29:21 “BINGO”, a game for spelling words

30:05 Valuable dispositions of early literacy instruction

34:50 skills integration

1_literacy_program_building_blocks38:53 Five helpful building blocks for an effective EFL literacy program

46:52 shared reading

2_phonics

3_vocabulary

Picture card games


Practicing Vocabulary with Picture Cards
National Geographic Learning: Young Learners
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCYuzKEv8KcxMlXQxy0UIzog

photographs stimulate curiosity

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Ideas for using flashcards
Macmillan ELT Spain, 2013

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Playing Picture Card Games With Very Young Learners
National Geographic Learning: Young Learners
2015
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCYuzKEv8KcxMlXQxy0UIzog

‘Stop!’, a Picture Card game

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Hands-On Games
National Geographic Learning: Young Learners
Dr. Joan Kang Shin

a game that allows learners to touch realia

Brick words. Mortar words


Explicit Vocabulary Teaching Strategies
AmericanGraduateDC

active and generative tasks:
– discussion
– writing activities
– graphic organizers (filling up information)

brick words
mortar words: functions, characteristics

Isabel L. Beck & Margaret G. McKeown
– tier I
– tier II
– tier III

Tier Two Vocabulary Instruction
SanBdoCitySchools

Building Vocabulary
McGraw-Hill Education PreK-12