Reasoning Tools (2016)

The Psychology of Thinking – with Richard Nisbett
The Royal Institution, Jun 22, 2016
Reasoning Tools for the Information Age

Vocabulary has increased
The more words you have, the more concepts you have.
The more concepts you have, the smarter you hare.

Calculus is routinely taught in high school

there’s been no continuous change: Scandinavia
Scandinavia does a better job than the rest of us bringing up the bottom
industrial revolution skills

Examples of the new tools: Statistics and probability theory
– sample
– population
– sample bias
– randomness
– law of large numbers (23:30)
– normal distribution
– standard deviation
– statistical significance
– regression to the mean (29:27-> 32:32)
26:57 sophomore slump, second novels, albums
– base rate
– correlation (odds) 17:55
Perceived and actual correlations acrross two occasions and across 20 (21:44)
+ abilities (test scores)
+ traits (honesty)

10:47 Scientific methodology
– control group
– randomized control experiment
– confounded variable
multiple regression analysis (39:40)
control for social class: the prestige of their occupation
– self-selection
– independence of observations
– natural experiment
– artifact

11:01 Decision Theory
– cost/benefit analysis
– opportunity cost (48:59)
– sunk cost (52:31)
– loss aversion
26:57 sophomore slump, second novels, albums
– base rate
– correlation (odds) 17:55
Perceived and actual correlations acrross two occasions and across 20 (21:44)
+ abilities (test scores)
+ traits (honesty)







Cross-Situational Learning

Cross-Situational Learning
in chapter: Open Learning Environments
Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning,
Springer, 2012
Editors: N. Seel

associative learning

children learn a lexicon containing many thousands of associations between
words and their meanings, at the rate of around ten new words a day.

Word Wizardry (Susan B. Neuman)

words_at_end_high_schoolWord Wizardry: Vocabulary Enhancement in Early Childhood, Prek Through Grade 1
by Susan B. Neuman

34:41 Children learn through frequency of words. we had to repeat a word 28 different times, in different ways, for a child to easily remember that word.

43:41 is there a vocabulary-rich environment?


44:40 book desserts: children don’t have access to books

46:23 books in every c…

47:05 compare & contrast

engage in justification

53: thematic vs. categories

57:  8-10 words each week
Opportunities for GUIDED PRACTICE:
– pictures; rhymes; riddles
– call and response techniques

58: GUIDED PRACTICE: you’re there to correct the student immediately

1:00 informal children monitoring

How are these things all alike?

Vocabulary: explicit vs. implicit
December 12, 2012
Isabel Beck’s Book, Bringing Words to Life

4. let students compose jingles or songs for words and definitions
9. Create vocabulary word pages in a notebook.

Dr. Joan Kang Shin

Literacy Instruction for Young EFL Learners
National Geographic Learning: Young Learners

Dr. Joan Kang Shin discusses how literacy activities can be introduced with learners as young as pre-school age and provide the building blocks for balanced literacy programming for young EFL learners.

conceptual habilities in L2

16:00 phonological awareness

17:16 phonemic awareness

Green Eggs and Ham
20:12 Chicka Chicka

23:56 Hot Potato Game

29:21 “BINGO”, a game for spelling words

30:05 Valuable dispositions of early literacy instruction

34:50 skills integration

1_literacy_program_building_blocks38:53 Five helpful building blocks for an effective EFL literacy program

46:52 shared reading



Picture card games

Practicing Vocabulary with Picture Cards
National Geographic Learning: Young Learners

photographs stimulate curiosity


Ideas for using flashcards
Macmillan ELT Spain, 2013


Playing Picture Card Games With Very Young Learners
National Geographic Learning: Young Learners

‘Stop!’, a Picture Card game


Hands-On Games
National Geographic Learning: Young Learners
Dr. Joan Kang Shin

a game that allows learners to touch realia

Brick words. Mortar words

Explicit Vocabulary Teaching Strategies

active and generative tasks:
– discussion
– writing activities
– graphic organizers (filling up information)

brick words
mortar words: functions, characteristics

Isabel L. Beck & Margaret G. McKeown
– tier I
– tier II
– tier III

Tier Two Vocabulary Instruction

Building Vocabulary
McGraw-Hill Education PreK-12

Words, Concepts & Complex Text (TextProject 2013)

Words, Concepts & Complex Text
TextProject, 2013

close reading

How Vocabulary Is Learned

1. Which words should be learned?

2. Learning burden

3. Vocabulary size and growth

4. Conditions contributing to vocabulary learning

5. Analysing vocabulary learning activities

6. Learning vocabulary in different contexts

7. Developing autonomous learners of vocabulary

8. Developing an effective vocabulary learning programme

9. Resources for vocabulary learning

10. Key questions about vocabulary learning

10 new words per day

Exploring Psychology
Ninth Edition ©2014
David G Myers

CHAPTER 9 : THINKING AND LANGUAGE > Language Development
p. 384
How many words did you learn during the years between your first birthday and your high school graduation?
The answer is about 60,000 (Bloom, 2000; McMurray, 2007).
That averages (after age 1) to nearly 3500 words each year, or nearly 10 each day!

Bloom, P. (2000). How children learn the meanings of words.
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

McMurray, B. (2007). Defusing the childhood vocabulary explosion. Science,
317, 631.

Children can learn 860 words per year (That’s 2 words a day!)

eBook of Vocabulary Teaching and Learning Research

Click to access Teaching_and_Learning_Vocabulary.pdf

A Focus On Vocabulary: ???????????

Effective Instructional Strategies Series
Teaching Vocabulary Explicitly
By Susan Hanson and Jennifer F.M. Padua
Pacific Resources for Education and Learning
© PREL 2011

Dec 17, 2010

How to learn vocabulary

5 Tips for Helping Students to Really Learn Vocabulary

Why Teach Vocabulary?

By year 1, children are capable of understaing up to approx 20000 words
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development

Learning words:
6 yrs 15,000 words
As many as 8 new words per day
The Guardian, 12 August 1986, cited in David Crystal, The English Language, 2002, p46
vocabulary growth


from 19,000 to 200,000 words for college graduate students (Beck & McKeown, 1991) …
Researchers have concluded that students add approximately 2,000 to 3,500 words yearly to their reading vocabularies (Anderson & Nagy, 1992; Beck & McKeown, 1991; Hiebert, 2005).
March 2020
Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G. (1991). Conditions of vocabulary acquisition. In R. Barr, M. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook for reading research (Vol. 2, pp. 789-814). New York, NY: Longman.
Anderson, R. C., & Nagy, W. E. (1992). The vocabulary conundrum. American Educator, 16, 14-18, 44-47.
Hiebert, E. H. (2005). In pursuit of an effective, efficient vocabulary curriculum for elementary students. In E. H. Hiebert & M. L. Kamil (Eds.), Teaching and learning vocabulary: Bringing research to practice. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.