Reasoning Tools (2016)

The Psychology of Thinking – with Richard Nisbett
The Royal Institution, Jun 22, 2016
Reasoning Tools for the Information Age

Vocabulary has increased
The more words you have, the more concepts you have.
The more concepts you have, the smarter you hare.

Calculus is routinely taught in high school

there’s been no continuous change: Scandinavia
Scandinavia does a better job than the rest of us bringing up the bottom
industrial revolution skills

Examples of the new tools: Statistics and probability theory
– sample
– population
– sample bias
– randomness
– law of large numbers (23:30)
– normal distribution
– standard deviation
– statistical significance
– regression to the mean (29:27-> 32:32)
26:57 sophomore slump, second novels, albums
– base rate
– correlation (odds) 17:55
Perceived and actual correlations acrross two occasions and across 20 (21:44)
+ abilities (test scores)
+ traits (honesty)

10:47 Scientific methodology
– control group
– randomized control experiment
– confounded variable
multiple regression analysis (39:40)
control for social class: the prestige of their occupation
– self-selection
– independence of observations
– natural experiment
– artifact

11:01 Decision Theory
– cost/benefit analysis
– opportunity cost (48:59)
– sunk cost (52:31)
– loss aversion
26:57 sophomore slump, second novels, albums
– base rate
– correlation (odds) 17:55
Perceived and actual correlations acrross two occasions and across 20 (21:44)
+ abilities (test scores)
+ traits (honesty)






Cross-Situational Learning

Cross-Situational Learning
in chapter: Open Learning Environments
Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning,
Springer, 2012
Editors: N. Seel

associative learning

children learn a lexicon containing many thousands of associations between
words and their meanings, at the rate of around ten new words a day.

Word Wizardry (Susan B. Neuman)

words_at_end_high_schoolWord Wizardry: Vocabulary Enhancement in Early Childhood, Prek Through Grade 1
by Susan B. Neuman

34:41 Children learn through frequency of words. we had to repeat a word 28 different times, in different ways, for a child to easily remember that word.

43:41 is there a vocabulary-rich environment?


44:40 book desserts: children don’t have access to books

46:23 books in every c…

47:05 compare & contrast

engage in justification

53: thematic vs. categories

57:  8-10 words each week
Opportunities for GUIDED PRACTICE:
– pictures; rhymes; riddles
– call and response techniques

58: GUIDED PRACTICE: you’re there to correct the student immediately

1:00 informal children monitoring

How are these things all alike?

Vocabulary: explicit vs. implicit
December 12, 2012
Isabel Beck’s Book, Bringing Words to Life

4. let students compose jingles or songs for words and definitions
9. Create vocabulary word pages in a notebook.

Dr. Joan Kang Shin

Literacy Instruction for Young EFL Learners
National Geographic Learning: Young Learners

Dr. Joan Kang Shin discusses how literacy activities can be introduced with learners as young as pre-school age and provide the building blocks for balanced literacy programming for young EFL learners.

conceptual habilities in L2

16:00 phonological awareness

17:16 phonemic awareness

Green Eggs and Ham
20:12 Chicka Chicka

23:56 Hot Potato Game

29:21 “BINGO”, a game for spelling words

30:05 Valuable dispositions of early literacy instruction

34:50 skills integration

1_literacy_program_building_blocks38:53 Five helpful building blocks for an effective EFL literacy program

46:52 shared reading



Picture card games

Practicing Vocabulary with Picture Cards
National Geographic Learning: Young Learners

photographs stimulate curiosity


Ideas for using flashcards
Macmillan ELT Spain, 2013


Playing Picture Card Games With Very Young Learners
National Geographic Learning: Young Learners

‘Stop!’, a Picture Card game


Hands-On Games
National Geographic Learning: Young Learners
Dr. Joan Kang Shin

a game that allows learners to touch realia

Brick words. Mortar words

Explicit Vocabulary Teaching Strategies

active and generative tasks:
– discussion
– writing activities
– graphic organizers (filling up information)

brick words
mortar words: functions, characteristics

Isabel L. Beck & Margaret G. McKeown
– tier I
– tier II
– tier III

Tier Two Vocabulary Instruction

Building Vocabulary
McGraw-Hill Education PreK-12