The origins of mental illness: social causation vs. social selection

Relationships between poverty and psychopathology: a natural experiment.
JAMA. 2003 Oct 15;290(15):2023-9.
Costello EJ, et al.
Duke University Medical School, Durham, NC.
CONTEXT: Social causation (adversity and stress) vs social selection (downward mobility from familial liability to mental illness) are competing theories about the origins of mental illness.

cited by:
A living wage
APA Monitor on Psychology. April 2016, Vol 47, No. 4
cited by:


Depression and socioeconomic status

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Depression: A Meta-Analysis
Am. J. Epidemiol. 2003,  157  (2):  98-112.
V. Lorant, et al.
Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University Results indicated that low-SES individuals had higher odds of being depressed (odds ratio = 1.81, p < 0.001)

SES = socioeconomic status


related TED Talk:

on poverty:


figure from:
Depression in the United States Household Population, 2005-2006
NCHS Data Brief No. 7, September 2008
Page last updated: January 19, 2010


depressionNational Center for Health Statistics.
Health, United States, 2011: With Special Feature on Socioeconomic Status and Health.
Hyattsville, MD. 2012.
In 2005–2010, the prevalence of depression among adults 45–64 years of age was 5 times as high for those below poverty (24%), 3 times as high for those with family income between 100%–199% of poverty (15%), and more than 1.5 times as high for those with family income between 200%–399% (7%), compared with those at 400% or more of the poverty level (5%) (Figure 33).


Can Poverty Lead To Mental Illness?
October 30, 2016