Train of thought

Living with ADHD in the age of information and social media
Theo Siggelakis

train of thought
5:14 AADD: Acquired Attention Deficit Disorder


ADHD As A Difference In Cognition, Not A Disorder
Stephen Tonti

ADHD sucks, but not really
Salif Mahamane | TEDxUSU
December 2015

another instance:

Pleiotropic effects on psychopathology (Lancet 2013)

Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis.
Lancet. 2013 Apr 20;381(9875):1371-9.
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium.
Erratum in: Lancet. 2013 Apr 20;381(9875):1360.

Findings from family and twin studies suggest that genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders do not in all cases map to present diagnostic categories.
We aimed to identify specific variants underlying genetic effects shared between the five disorders in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium: autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia.

We analyzed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for the five disorders

SNPs at four loci surpassed the cutoff for genome-wide significance (p<5×10(-8)) in the primary analysis: regions on chromosomes 3p21 and 10q24, and SNPs within two L-type voltage-gated calcium channel subunits, CACNA1C and CACNB2.
Model selection analysis supported effects of these loci for several disorders.
Loci previously associated with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia had variable diagnostic specificity.
Pathway analysis supported a role for calcium channel signalling genes for all five disorders.

Our findings show that specific SNPs are associated with a range of psychiatric disorders of childhood onset or adult onset. In particular, variation in calcium-channel activity genes seems to have pleiotropic effects on psychopathology.
These results provide evidence relevant to the goal of moving beyond descriptive syndromes in psychiatry, and towards a nosology informed by disease cause.

cited by:
Genes and the Human Condition (From Behavior to Biotechnology)
Coursera 2014

ADHD: Some Foods May Complement Treatment

For Kids With ADHD, Some Foods May Complement Treatment
by Allison Aubrey
January 09, 2012

“Elimination diets may help in a very small percentage of patients,” whereas stimulant medications are generally very effective, writes J. Gordon Millichap, a neurologist at Children’s Memorial Hospital in Chicago who authored the paper.

Trigeminal Nerve Stimulator in Depression, Epilepsy

Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation an Option for ADHD?
May 20, 2013
Currently, the system has no approvals in the United States from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Leon Ekchian, president and   CEO of NeuroSigma, Inc, said the company plans first to apply for the epilepsy indication in the United States, with depression next and ADHD   indications probably further down the road.

EU Approval for Nerve Stimulator in Depression, Epilepsy
Emma Hitt, PhD
Sep 07, 2012

An external trigeminal nerve stimulation (eTNS) system (Monarch, NeuroSigma, Inc) has received European Union (EU) CE Certification for the adjunctive treatment of epilepsy and major depressive disorder for adults and children aged 9 years and older.

The device has been evaluated in clinical trials conducted at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and the University of Southern California. It consists of an external pulse generator and disposable electric patches placed on the forehead that are replaced daily and are worn primarily during sleep.

NeuroSigma, Inc.

Games to Sharpen the Brain

Akili Interactive Labs Inc. of Boston

Games to Sharpen the Brain
July 31, 2012
Start-Ups Seek FDA Approval for Videogames as Treatment for ADHD

Akili Interactive Labs Inc. of Boston, formed by start-up-creating firm PureTech Ventures, and San Francisco company Brain Plasticity Inc. are seeking Food and Drug Administration approval for a videogame treatment they hope clinicians will turn to before prescribing medicines for ADHD.

The disorder, whose symptoms include difficulty paying attention and remaining focused, affects 9% of adolescents and 4.1% of adults in the U.S., according to the American Psychiatric Association.

The companies are building on research suggesting that action videogames can sharpen players’ ability to concentrate, and may have other medical or health benefits.
University of Toronto scientists said in April that action videogame play causes improvement in “visual attention,” which is needed to drive a car or track changes on a computer display.
In 2010, University of Rochester and University of Minnesota researchers found that action videogames can train people to make the right decisions faster.

The FDA has never approved a videogame as a medical therapy.

Akili co-founder Dr. Eddie Martucci

the work of  Daphne Bavelier  of the University of Rochester and  Adam Gazzaley  of the University of California, San Francisco

Dr. Bavelier had found that players of fast-paced, action videogames outperform non-gamers in their visual-attention skills, or the ability to concentrate visually on an object while ignoring irrelevant information. Visual attention is important for things like driving or picking a friend’s face out of a crowd.

With research increasingly suggesting that neurological benefits are a byproduct of recreational, action-game play, PureTech teamed up with Dr. Bavelier and Dr. Gazzaley to design videogames that stimulate parts of the brain in ways that could be medically useful. With Dr. Bavelier’s and Dr. Gazzaley’s guidance, and advice from videogame experts like Noah Falstein, formerly of videogame publisher LucasArts Entertainment Co., PureTech launched Akili in December.

neuroplasticity, or the brain’s ability to rewire itself in response to learning or new experiences.

Brain Plasticity has launched clinical tests of computer-based exercises to treat schizophrenia and ADHD, said Dr. Henry Mahncke, chief operating officer of Brain Plasticity and chief executive of San Francisco-based Posit Science Corp.

A study of 3,034 children and adolescents in Singapore, published in Psychology of Popular Media Culture, found videogame play to be associated with greater attention problems.

Noting Dr. Bavelier’s and Dr. Green’s research, the authors speculate that electronic media might improve visual attention but impair the ability to sustain attention on a hard or boring task.
The latter type is what teachers need from students, according to co-author Douglas A. Gentile, a developmental psychologist at Iowa State University.

“The biggest problem is that we use the word ‘attention’ to mean many different things,” Dr. Gentile wrote in an email. “Could games be designed to improve the kinds of attention that teachers need? I expect so, but given that games usually train the other types, it becomes a great design challenge.”