Kierkegaaard’s View of Socrates

Kierkegaaard’s View of Socrates
Why did Kierkegaaard believe that Socates gave rise to so many  competing philosophical schools?

– With no positive doctrine, interpretations were limitless

Søren Kierkegaard – Subjectivity, Irony and the Crisis of Modernity
University of Copenhagen
Jon Stewart, PhD, Dr theol & phil


Emergence (process)

[philosophy, systems theory, science, and art] a process whereby larger entities, patterns, and regularities arise through interactions among smaller or simpler entities that themselves do not exhibit such properties

“emergence” would have clarified–even made redundant–the discussion:

Emergence and Complexity
Stanford. May 21, 2010
Robert Sapolsky
cellular automaton

butterfly effects

gradients of information
gradients of attraction and repulsion
gradients provide a lot of the optimization in the systems
neighbor-to-neighbor interactions
generalists work better in these systems than specialists
bottom-up systems
attractors and chaos


Sorites Paradox

Sorites Paradox
Dec 6, 2011

The sorites paradox is the name given to a class of paradoxical arguments, also known as little-by-little arguments, which arise as a result of the indeterminacy surrounding limits of application of the predicates involved.
For example, the concept of a heap appears to lack sharp boundaries and, as a consequence of the subsequent indeterminacy surrounding the extension of the predicate ‘is a heap’, no one grain of wheat can be identified as making the difference between being a heap and not being a heap. Given then that one grain of wheat does not make a heap, it would seem to follow that two do not, thus three do not, and so on. In the end it would appear that no amount of wheat can make a heap.
We are faced with paradox since from apparently true premises by seemingly uncontroversial reasoning we arrive at an apparently false conclusion.

This phenomenon at the heart of the paradox is now recognised as the phenomenon of vagueness. Though initially identified with the indeterminacy surrounding limits of application of a predicate along some dimension, vagueness can be seen to be a feature of syntactic categories other than predicates.
Names, adjectives, adverbs and so on are all susceptible to paradoxical sorites reasoning in a derivative sense.


concept used by:
Logic: Language and Information 1
The University of Melbourne

Thinking Thoughts No One Has Thunk

Thinking Thoughts No One Has Thunk
by Robert Krulwich
July 06, 2011

a young Canadian filmmaker in Alberta, Nick Saik, gave his sister Laura a hula hoop. On it, he’d clamped a light-weight, wide-angle camera. All he did was ask her to hula.

This is the first time I’ve ever seen hooping from the hoop’s point of view.
Instead of a ring twirling around a girl, in this version the ring seems stock still. It’s the girl who does all the twirling. It’s so wonderfully weird.

As somebody wrote on YouTube: “that girl isn’t good at Hula Hooping, the Hula Hoop is good at Girling.”

This talent for topsy-turvying, for knowing that how you view the world is just one way among many, that there are always other ways, and sometimes those other ways may overthrow everything you believe — this is a rare and brave thing to do.