What Does It Take To Get A Drug Banned For Enhancing Athletes’ Performance?
June 14, 2016

Maria Sharapova appealed a two-year suspension for taking the banned drug meldonium.

Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate is the organosulfur compound with the formula CH2CHCH2NCS. It is responsible for the pungent taste of mustard, radish, horseradish, and wasabi. This pungency and the lachrymatory effect of AITC is mediated through the TRPA1 and TRPV1 ion channels.

It is slightly soluble in water, but more soluble in most organic solvents.

Based on in vitro experiments and animal models, allyl isothiocyanate exhibits many desirable attributes of a cancer chemopreventive agent.


proteinaceous carriers

The carrier protein from protein–polysaccharide conjugate vaccines is processed by the polysaccharide-specific B cell …


carriersSmith and Williams’ Introduction to the Principles of Drug Design and Action, Fourth Edition
H. John Smith, Hywel Williams
CRC Press, Oct 10, 2005
p. 52

Biobrane, a membrane carrier made of a silicone membrane with an integrated woven nylon mesh.

David Casarett, MD

When Weed Is The Cure: A Doctor’s Case for Medical Marijuana  
July 14, 2015

Dr. David Casarett, is the director of hospice and palliative care at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine.

I found it though, at least for me, at the cost of most of the most common side effects of acute use of medical marijuana — confusion, hallucinations. I think — mostly because the dose I gave myself, being relatively unfamiliar with marijuana and very unfamiliar with the strength of what I managed to obtain — [I] was really blindsided by some of the acute side effects like confusion and hallucinations, which I honestly should have expected, but didn’t. …

[I heard] air traffic controllers vectoring flights into and out of the Phoenix airport — those voices were coming from my living room, where there really weren’t any air traffic controllers.

CASARETT: The acute cognitive side effects, meaning what we all experience in the first two to six hours after being exposed to medical marijuana, are fairly well-described.
They tend to be fairly short-term. They tend to be predictable.
As long as you know what the dose is that you’re getting.
I think what makes me a little bit nervous, and something that we don’t quite understand from the research that’s been done yet, but there’s been enough research done to make many of us worry that long-term cognitive effects for somebody who smokes half a joint a day for 10, 20, 30 years, there have been several studies now that have found some combination of a decrease in neuropsychological function, often decreases or changes in thinking and memory, also changes in brain structure, decreases in the volume of certain areas of the brain, like the cortex or the amygdala, that are associated with thinking and memory.

Biosimilar drugs

First biosimilar drug set to enter US market
But such cheaper, generic versions of biological drugs face scientific, regulatory and patent hurdles.
13 January 2015

On 7 January, an FDA advisory panel decided unanimously that a drug made by Sandoz, the generics arm of Swiss pharmaceutical giant Novartis, should be accepted as a replacement for filgrastim (Neupogen), an immune-boosting drug for people undergoing cancer treatment made by Amgen of Thousand Oaks, California.

Powdered caffeine: lethal

Wade Sweatt was 24 when he collapsed and died after drinking his own mix of milk or water and powdered caffeine.

Potent Powdered Caffeine Raises Safety Worries
December 31, 2014

“It’s fundamentally irresponsible to be selling this powerful drug in this form to consumers. … It’s a dangerous, potent drug that, if taken in as little as a teaspoon, runs the risk of being a lethal overdose to people.”
– Michael Taylor, FDA

One teaspoon of pure caffeine powder delivers about the same jolt as 25 cups of coffee.
The Center for Science in the Public Interest


The official cause of death was “caffeine-induced cardiac event causing a probable arrhythmia,”

Banned Drugs in Dietary Supplements

Presence of Banned Drugs in Dietary Supplements Following FDA Recalls
JAMA. 2014;312(16):1691-1693.
Pieter A. Cohen, MD, et al.

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiates class I drug recalls when products have the reasonable possibility of causing serious adverse health consequences or death.1 Recently, the FDA has used class I drug recalls in an effort to remove dietary supplements adulterated with pharmaceutical ingredients from US markets. Approximately half of all FDA class I drug recalls since 2004 have involved dietary supplements adulterated with banned pharmaceutical ingredients.

journalistic version: