Secular changes in personality

Secular changes in personality: study on 75-year-olds examined in 1976–1977 and 2005–2006
E. Billstedt, et al.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Volume 28, Issue 3,  pages 298–304, March 2013
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/gps.3825/abstract

Objective
In order to study secular changes in personality factors neuroticism and extroversion, representative population samples of non-demented 75-year-olds underwent psychiatric examinations in 1976–1977 (total n = 223, 138 women, 85 men) and 2005–2006 (total n = 556, 322 women and 234 men).

Methods
Eysenck Personality Inventory was used at both occasions. Demographic factors (educational level, marital status, having children) were registered.

Results
Seventy-five-year-olds examined in 2005–2006 had higher values on extroversion and lower values on the Lie scale compared with those examined in 1976–1977. Neuroticism did not differ between the two birth cohorts. Neuroticism scores were higher in women than in men both in 1976–1977 and 2005–2006, and Lie score was higher in women than in men in 2005–2006.

Conclusions
Our findings suggest that present cohorts of 75-year-olds are more extroverted and less prone to respond in a socially desirable manner than those born three decades earlier. Neuroticism levels remained unchanged, suggesting this trait may be less influenced by environmental factors than the other traits studied.

Keywords:
personality;
epidemiology;
secular change;
Eysenck Personality Inventory

Schizotypy & COMT high activity allele

Higher scores of self reported schizotypy in healthy young males carrying the COMT high activity allele
Molecular Psychiatry, 2002, Volume 7, Number 7, Pages 706-711
D Avramopoulos, et al.
http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/v7/n7/full/4001070a.html

Schizotypal personality often precedes the development of schizophrenia and it is considered by some to be a low end of the schizophrenia spectrum.
It has also been found to be present in high frequency in schizophrenics’ relatives (reviewed by Webb et al), suggesting a common genetic background with the disease.
Although many studies have shown aggregation of schizotypal personality in schizophrenics’ families, when positive or negative symptoms are examined there is lack of consistency in the findings.
Nevertheless there have been reports of significant heritability for schizotypal personality and it has been suggested that positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia correlate with the corresponding symptoms in schizotypal relatives.
It therefore seems likely, that schizotypal personality represents a condition attributable to some (but possibly not all) of the genes that predispose to schizophrenia, as it is a common but not a consistent premorbid finding.

related:

What’s New? Exuberance for Novelty Has Benefits

What’s New? Exuberance for Novelty Has Benefits
February 13, 2012
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/14/science/novelty-seeking-neophilia-can-be-a-predictor-of-well-being.html

novelty-seeking, a personality trait long associated with trouble … attention deficit disorder, compulsive spending and gambling, alcoholism, drug abuse and criminal behavior.

In the right combination with other traits, novelty-seeking is a crucial predictor of well-being.

“Novelty-seeking is one of the traits that keeps you healthy and happy and fosters personality growth as you age,” says C. Robert Cloninger, the psychiatrist who developed personality tests for measuring this trait.
The problems with novelty-seeking showed up in his early research in the 1990s

“It can lead to antisocial behavior,” he says, “but if you combine this adventurousness and curiosity with persistence and a sense that it’s not all about you, then you get the kind of creativity that benefits society as a whole.”

Fans of this trait are calling it “neophilia

Robert Moyzis, a biochemist at the University of California, Irvine.
The mutations are more prevalent in the most far-flung populations, like Indian tribes in South America descended from the neophiliacs who crossed the Bering Strait.

genes, as usual, are only part of the story.
Researchers have found that people’s tendency for novelty-seeking also depends on their upbringing, on the local culture and on their stage of life.
By some estimates, the urge for novelty drops by half between the ages of 20 and 60.

Dr. Cloninger, a professor of psychiatry and genetics at Washington University in St. Louis, tracked people using a personality test he developed two decades ago, the Temperament and Character Inventory.
By administering the test periodically and chronicling changes in people’s lives over more than a decade, he and colleagues looked for the crucial combination of traits in people who flourished over the years — the ones who reported the best health, most friends, fewest emotional problems and greatest satisfaction with life.

What was the secret to their happy temperament and character?
A trio of traits.
They scored high in novelty-seeking as well in persistence and “self-transcendence.”
Persistence, the stick-to-it virtue promoted by strong-willed Victorians, may sound like the opposite of novelty-seeking, but the two traits can coexist and balance each other.

“People with persistence tend to be achievers because they’ll keep working at something even when there’s no immediate reward,” Dr. Cloninger says. “They’ll think, ‘I didn’t win this time, but next time I will.’

The other trait in the trio, self-transcendence, gives people a larger perspective.
“It’s the capacity to get lost in the moment doing what you love to do, to feel a connection to nature and humanity and the universe,” Dr. Cloninger says. “It’s sometimes found in disorganized people who are immature and do a lot of wishful thinking and daydreaming, but when it’s combined with persistence and novelty-seeking, it leads to personal growth and enables you to balance your needs with those of the people around you.”

She and Dr. Cloninger both advise neophiles to be selective in their targets.
“Don’t go wide and shallow into useless trivia,” Ms. Gallagher says. “Use your neophilia to go deep into subjects that are important to you.”

Mental health: On the spectrum

Mental health: On the spectrum
Nature 496, 416–418 (25 April 2013)
http://www.nature.com/news/mental-health-on-the-spectrum-1.12842
David Adam
Research suggests that mental illnesses lie along a spectrum — but the field’s latest diagnostic manual still splits them apart.

diagnosed with several disorders, or co-morbidities: About one-fifth of people who fulfil criteria for one DSM-IV disorder meet the criteria for at least two more.
These are patients “who have not read the textbook”

Psychiatrists see so many people with co-morbidities that they have even created new categories to account for some of them.
The classic Kraepelian theoretical division between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, for example, has long been bridged by a pragmatic hybrid called schizoaffective disorder, which describes those with symptoms of both disorders and was recognized in DSM–IV.

Ironically, the ingrained category approach is actually inhibiting the scientific research that could refine diagnoses, in part because funding agencies have often favoured studies that fit the standard diagnostic groups.
“Until a few years ago we simply would not have been able to get a gra nt to study psychoses,” says Nick Craddock, who works at the Medical Research Council Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics at Cardiff University, UK.
“Researchers studied bipolar disorder or they studied schizophrenia. It was unthinkable to study them together.”

“Introducing a botched dimensional system prematurely into DSM-5 may have the negative effect of poisoning the well for their future acceptance by clinicians,” wrote Allen Frances, emeritus professor of psychiatry at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, in an article in the British Journal of Psychiatry

The controversial personality-disorder dimensions were voted down by the APA’s board of trustees at the final planning meeting in December 2012.

The APA claims that the final version of DSM-5 is a significant advance on the previous edition and that it uses a combination of category and dimensional diagnoses.
The previously separate categories of substance abuse and substance dependence are merged into the new diagnosis of substance-use disorder.

Bodurka’s group is studying the idea that dysfunctional brain circuits trigger the release of inflammatory cytokines and that these drive anhedonia by suppressing motivation and pleasure.
The scientists plan to probe these links using analyses of gene expression and brain scans. In theory, if this or other mechanisms of anhedonia could be identified, patients could be tested for them and treated, whether they have a DSM diagnosis or not.

On the question of dimensionality, most outsiders see it as largely the same as DSM-IV. Kupfer and Regier say that much of the work on dimensionality that did not make the final cut is included in the section of the manual intended to provoke further discussion and research.

All involved agree on one thing.
Their role model now is not Freud or Kraepelin, but the genetic revolution taking place in oncology.
Here, researchers and physicians are starting to classify and treat cancers on the basis of a tumour’s detailed genetic profile rather than the part of the body in which it grows.
Those in the psychiatric field say that genetics and brain imaging could do the same for diagnoses in mental health.

The neurobiology of psychopathic traits in youths

The neurobiology of psychopathic traits in youths
R. James R. Blair
Nature Reviews Neuroscience (2013)
http://www.nature.com/nrn/journal/v14/n11/full/nrn3577.html

Conduct disorder is a childhood behavior disorder that is characterized by persistent aggressive or antisocial behavior that disrupts the child’s environment and impairs his or her functioning.

A proportion of children with conduct disorder have psychopathic traits.

Psychopathic traits consist of a callous–unemotional component and an impulsive–antisocial component, which are associated with two core impairments.

The first is a reduced empathic response to the distress of other individuals, which primarily reflects reduced amygdala responsiveness to distress cues; the second is deficits in decision making and in reinforcement learning, which reflects dysfunction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatum.

Genetic and prenatal factors contribute to the abnormal development of these neural systems, and social–environmental variables that affect motivation influence the probability that antisocial behavior will be subsequently displayed.

The Most (And Least) Lucrative College Majors

The Most (And Least) Lucrative College Majors
September 09, 2013
http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2013/09/10/219372252/the-most-and-least-lucrative-college-majors-in-1-graph

Michael Gardner just graduated from City College in New York with a degree in psychology. He applied for more than 100 jobs, had trouble getting interviews and worked at Home Depot to make ends meet.

Gardner just got a job earning $36,000 a year as a case worker — and he feels lucky to have it.

What you major in has a bigger influence over your income than where you go to school, according to Anthony Carnevale, an economist at Georgetown University.

petroleum engineering

update:
http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/03/12/466036711/how-low-oil-prices-are-changing-career-plans-at-an-ohio-college

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What’s Your Major?    
September 11, 2013
http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2013/09/11/221417806/episode-485-whats-your-major

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Why Women (Like Me) Choose Lower-Paying Jobs
by Lisa Chow
September 11, 2013
http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2013/09/11/220748057/why-women-like-me-choose-lower-paying-jobs

I majored in applied math. I have an MBA.

Carnevale says those higher-earning majors attract a certain type of personality.
You have to have a very high appetite for what psychologists call realism. That is hands-on manipulation of the world.
You have to have a very high value on working alone, individual achievement.
Women, commonly, and most men have many more interests and values than that, and that’s what steers them away, in the end.

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The Fight Over Teacher Salaries: A Look At The Numbers
March 16, 2018
https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2018/03/16/592221378/the-fight-over-teacher-salaries-a-look-at-the-numbers

===========================

salary

Dr. Gilmer and Mr. Hyde

Dr. Gilmer and Mr. Hyde
This American Life. Apr 12, 2013
http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/492/dr-gilmer-and-mr-hyde

Dr. Benjamin Gilmer (left) gets a job at a rural clinic.
He finds out he’s replaced someone — also named Dr. Gilmer (picture) — who went to prison after killing his own father.
But the more Benjamin’s patients talk about the other Dr. Gilmer, the more confused he becomes.
Everyone loved the old Dr. Gilmer. So Benjamin starts digging around, trying to understand how a good man can seemingly turn bad.

Huntington’s Disease

< 47:43

A Psychopath Walks Into A Room. Can You Tell?

A Psychopath Walks Into A Room. Can You Tell?
May 21, 2011
http://www.npr.org/2011/05/21/136462824/a-psychopath-walks-into-a-room-can-you-tell

“Robert Hare, the eminent Canadian psychologist who invented the psychopath checklist, … recently announced that you’re four times more likely to find a psychopath at the top of the corporate ladder than you are walking around in the janitor’s office,”

Jon Ronson is the author of a new book, The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness Industry. The titular test is called the PCL-R. Invented by Hare, it’s a checklist of characteristics common to psychopaths: things like glib and superficial charm, grandiosity, manipulative behavior and lack of remorse.

The closest I could find was Narcis­sistic Personality Disorder, sufferers of which have “a grandiose sense of self-importance and entitlement,” are “preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success,” are “exploitative,””lack empathy,” and require “excessive admiration,” and Antisocial Personality Disorder, which compels sufferers to be “frequently deceitful and manipulative in order to gain personal profit or pleasure (e.g., to obtain money, sex or power).”

see also:
https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2013/08/11/power-diminishes-all-varieties-of-empathy

Kevin Dutton

Kevin Dutton
http://www.wisdomofpsychopaths.com/kevin-dutton.html
The Wisdom of Psychopaths – Lessons in Life from Saints, Spies and Serial Killers was published (Farrar, Straus and Giroux) in October 2012

Would Judge Give Psychopath With Genetic Defect Lighter Sentence?
by Alix Spiegel
August 17, 2012
http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/08/17/158944525/would-judge-give-psychopath-with-genetic-defect-lighter-sentence

Creator of Psycopathy Test Worries About Its Use
May 27, 2011
http://www.npr.org/2011/05/27/136723357/creator-of-psychopathy-test-worries-about-its-use
Mr. HARE: Empathy is highly genetic in origin, modified and shaped by the environment, of course.
But if you’ve got an adult who has virtually no empathy in the normal sense of the term, you’re not going to send him to school to learn empathy, Empathy 101. It’s just not going to work.

Can a Test Really Tell Who’s a Psycopath?
by Alix Spiegel
May 26, 2011
http://www.npr.org/2011/05/26/136619689/can-a-test-really-tell-whos-a-psychopath

SPECIAL SERIES: Inside the Criminal Brain
June 2010
http://www.npr.org/series/128248068/inside-the-criminal-brain
MAOA (monoamino oxidase A)

see also:
https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2013/08/11/power-diminishes-all-varieties-of-empathy

https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2013/08/13/a-psychopath-walks-into-a-room-can-you-tell

Johari window
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johari_window