Context (grounding)

Language_and_communicationLanguage and Communication

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    • Context (grounding)

Introduction to Natural Language Processing
University of Michigan
Coursera, October 5 – December 27, 2015


When You’re Talking or Typing, AI is There

Structure Data 2014: When You’re Talking or Typing, AI is There
Apr 11, 2014
Despite the hard work that goes into building systems for deep learning and other methods of understanding human language, users might never know they’re powering their favorite apps. And that’s kind of the point.

ambience search
context about the user
11:35 written in Python, …
12:40 latency … real-time learning
13:50 terabite on the device … Google’s entire knowledge graph

There are multiple grand truths

Structure Data 2014: Democratizing Artificial Intelligence with APIs
Apr 11, 2014
If you think Siri is smart, you haven’t seen anything yet. Hear how APIs are putting cutting-edge capabilities in deep learning, cognitive computing and artificial intelligence into the hands of developers everywhere.
Elliot Turner — CEO, AlchemyAPI
Stephen Gold — VP, WW Marketing and Sales Operations, Watson Solutions, IBM Software Group

00:40 cognition as a service
02:05 programatic computing
04:00 in congnitive systems, there is no absolute outcome
05:00 the grand truth
05:40 context is key. You can have multiple grand truths, depending on the situation. Vampires are real in certain contexts, but they’re not in others.

“… the data, which in the end would form the ‘grand truth’ that Watson would regard as baseline facts.”

There seems to be no term in the NN literature for the set of all cases that you want to be able to generalize to. Statisticians call this set the “population”. Tsypkin (1971) called it the “grand truth distribution,” but this term has never caught on.
Tsypkin, Y. (1971), Adaptation and Learning in Automatic Systems, NY: Academic Press.

the notion of context as a critical feature to understanding anything. Bateson (1979) was adamant in making the point that “without context, words and actions have no meaning at all” (p. 16).
Words and actions need to be situated in one or more relevant and meaningful contexts, in order to develop any degree of complex understandings.
The use of metapatterns for research into complex systems of teaching, learning, and schooling. Part II: Applications.
Bloom, Jeffrey W., & Volk, Tyler. (2007).
Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education. 4(1): 45—68.