If it looks like a duck…

Did you know that the phrase “if it looks like a duck…” was originally about a mechanical pooing duck?
26 Feb 2015
http://www.mirror.co.uk/usvsth3m/you-know-phrase-if-looks-5235884

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duck_test
The Duck test is a humorous term for a form of abductive reasoning.

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Abductive reasoning: taking your best shot

Abductive reasoning: taking your best shot
Butte College. 10/28/08
https://butte.edu/departments/cas/tipsheets/thinking/reasoning.html

Abductive reasoning typically begins with an incomplete set of observations and proceeds to the likeliest possible explanation for the set. Abductive reasoning yields the kind of daily decision-making that does its best with the information at hand, which often is incomplete.

A medical diagnosis is an application of abductive reasoning: given this set of symptoms, what is the diagnosis that would best explain most of them?

While cogent inductive reasoning requires that the evidence that might shed light on the subject be fairly complete, whether positive or negative, abductive reasoning is characterized by lack of completeness, either in the evidence, or in the explanation, or both.
A patient may be unconscious or fail to report every symptom, for example, resulting in incomplete evidence, or a doctor may arrive at a diagnosis that fails to explain several of the symptoms. Still, he must reach the best diagnosis he can.

The abductive process can be creative, intuitive, even revolutionary.
Einstein’s work, for example, was not just inductive and deductive, but involved a creative leap of imagination and visualization that scarcely seemed warranted by the mere observation of moving trains and falling elevators.
In fact, so much of Einstein’s work was done as a “thought experiment” (for he never experimentally dropped elevators), that some of his peers discredited it as too fanciful.
Nevertheless, he appears to have been right-until now his remarkable conclusions about space-time continue to be verified experientially.

Reference:
Thagard, Paul and Cameron Shelley.
“Abductive reasoning: Logic, visual thinking, and coherence.”
Waterloo, Ontario: Philosophy Department, Univerisity of Waterloo,
1997. June 2, 2005.
http://cogsci.uwaterloo.ca/Articles/Pages/%7FAbductive.html

In abductive reasoning, unlike in deductive reasoning, the premises do not guarantee the conclusion.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abductive_reasoning

cited by:
Gamification
University of Pennsylvania
https://www.coursera.org/course/gamification
7.1 The Design Process > Design Thinking
Balance of analytical & creative:
– Abductive reasoning

cited by:
Data Visualization (July 2015)
by John C. Hart
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
https://www.coursera.org/course/datavisualization