Bromide, bromate

Why Are 96,000,000 Black Balls on This Reservoir?
Veritasium, 2019

I took a boat through 96 million black plastic balls on the Los Angeles reservoir to find out why they’re there. The first time I heard about shade balls the claim was they reduce evaporation. But it turns out this isn’t the reason they were introduced.

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decomposing sea lettuce -> H2S

Tourists heading to France are warned to avoid toxic sea lettuce which is feared to have killed two men in last few days
15 July 2019
https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7248143/Tourists-heading-France-warned-avoid-toxic-sea-lettuce.html

H2S gas — what you need to know about hydrogen sulfide
2017
https://www.blacklinesafety.com/blog/h2s-gas-need-know

Ácido sulfhídrico (nombre IUPAC: sulfuro de hidrógeno)
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%81cido_sulfh%C3%ADdrico

Making a Hydrogen Sulfide Generator
NileRed, 2014

Carfentanil

Deadly Opioid Overwhelms First Responders And Crime Labs in Ohio
September 25, 2016
http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/09/25/495052633/deadly-opioid-overwhelms-first-responders-and-crime-labs-in-ohio

Heroin isn’t new in Cincinnati, but the recent surge in overdoses is being blamed on an even more potent drug called carfentanil. It’s 100 times stronger than fentanyl, a more common synthetic opioid that is itself much stronger than heroin. Carfentanil is used to sedate elephants. It can be dangerous to even touch it without gloves.

related:

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/09/02/492108992/an-even-deadlier-opioid-carfentanil-is-hitting-the-streets

Rice & Arsenic Exposure

Association of Rice and Rice-Product Consumption With Arsenic Exposure Early in Life
Margaret R. Karagas, Ph, et al.
JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(6):609-616.
http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2514074

Rice—a typical first food and major ingredient in various infant foods—contains inorganic arsenic (As), but the extent of As exposure from these foods has not been well characterized in early childhood.

Conclusions and Relevance 
Our findings indicate that intake of rice cereal and other rice-containing foods, such as rice snacks, contribute to infants’ As exposure and suggest that efforts should be made to reduce As exposure during this critical phase of development.

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Arsenic in rice stirs US action
Nature blogs. 22 Sep 2012
http://blogs.nature.com/news/2012/09/arsenic-in-rice-stirs-us-action-2.html

On the heels of two reports that have reignited worries about arsenic poisoning from rice, US lawmakers are taking steps to restrict the toxic substance.

On 21 September, US Representative Rosa DeLauro of Connecticut introduced a bill that would require the Secretary of Health and Human Services to set limits on allowable arsenic levels in rice and rice products.
The proposal specifies that the heavy metal — which has been linked to increased risk of certain cancers

Arsenic occurs naturally in soil and can be taken up by plants such as rice.
However, as Nature reported in 2005, in the United States, and particularly in some Southern states, arsenic may be concentrated in rice fields once used for cotton farming and treated with arsenic-based pesticides against boll weevils.

FDA researchers analysed arsenic levels in about 200 samples of rice and rice products from the US marketplace — including rice cakes, cereals and drinks — which originated in the United States and other countries. The report measured organic and inorganic arsenic, the latter of which is considered particularly toxic.

Average inorganic arsenic levels ranged from 3.5 micrograms per serving for basmati rice to 6.7 micrograms for non-basmati rice. In dry weight, the study found inorganic arsenic levels in some samples as high as 100–200 parts per billion.

Federal regulations limit arsenic in drinking water to 10 parts per billion. No such limits exist for food, according to the FDA.

Earlier this week, a parallel study appeared online in Consumer Reports, a publication of the New York-based consumer protection group Consumers Union. The advocates called their results “worrisome”, encouraging consumers to limit intake of rice and rice products. Consumers Union also pushed for federal standards on arsenic in rice.

There is no safe level of lead exposure

High Lead Levels In Michigan Kids After City Switches Water Source
September 29, 2015
http://www.npr.org/2015/09/29/444497051/high-lead-levels-in-michigan-kids-after-city-switches-water-source

… He’d been tested before the city switched its water source. At that time, he had a level of 2 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood. After the switch, his level was 6.5.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says a level of 5 is considered “much higher” than that found in most children. It also says there is no safe level of lead exposure — and the effects, like lower IQ, are irreversible.

… researchers from Virginia Tech found that Flint River water is highly corrosive. That means when it comes into contact with lead from service lines, household pipes or solder, it eats away at the lead and sends it right to people’s faucets.
[In 1986 lead pipes were banned.]

City officials and state regulators say they’re now putting together a corrosion control plan to reduce lead exposure.

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Doctor Who Discovered Children Had Elevated Lead Levels Talks About What’s Changed
September 17, 2017
http://www.npr.org/2017/09/17/551670868/doctor-who-discovered-children-had-elevated-lead-levels-talks-about-whats-change

Dr. Hanna-Attisha

we’re surrounding our kids with science, with evidence-based interventions that we know promote development and can mitigate the impact of lead.

universal preschool.
Every kid in Flint gets a book mailed to them every month from the ages of 0 to 5.

http://www.npr.org/2016/11/26/503416880/michigan-pediatrician-gives-update-on-childrens-health-one-year-after-flint-wate
early literacy and early intervention. And we have universal preschool
———————–

related:
http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2015/10/18/449698380/calls-continue-for-epa-to-clean-up-former-lead-production-site-in-philly

Getting drunk on hand sanitizer

More children getting drunk on hand sanitizer
CNN
September 15, 2015
http://edition.cnn.com/2015/09/14/health/hand-sanitizer-poisoning/index.html

Six-year-old Nhaijah Russell swallowed three or four squirts of seemingly innocuous liquid hand sanitizer at school. It tasted good, she said, like strawberry.

It also contained enough alcohol to make her dangerously drunk. She arrived at the emergency room slurring her words and unable to walk.

Since 2010, poison control center hotlines across the United States have seen a nearly 400% increase in calls related to children younger than 12 ingesting hand sanitizer, according to new analysis by the Georgia Poison Center.

The amount of alcohol in hand sanitizer ranges from 45% to 95%. Ingesting even small amounts — as little as two or three squirts in some cases — can cause alcohol poisoning. By comparison, wine and beer contain about 12% and 5% alcohol

E-Cigarette Smoke: Contains Some Toxic Elements

Second-Hand E-Cigarette Smoke: Healthier Than Regular Cigarette Smoke, but Still Contains Some Toxic Elements
August 28, 2014
https://pressroom.usc.edu/second-hand-e-cigarette-smoke-healthier-than-regular-cigarette-smoke-but-still-contains-some-toxic-elements

researchers find increased levels of certain toxic metals in second-hand smoke from e-cigs

e-cigarette smoke contains the toxic element chromium, absent from traditional cigarettes, as well as nickel at levels four times higher than normal cigarettes.
In addition, several other toxic metals such as lead and zinc were also found in second-hand e-cigarette smoke

Interventions for alcohol hangover

Seeking Proof For Why We Feel Terrible After Too Many Drinks
August 18, 2014
http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2014/08/18/341360729/seeking-proof-for-why-we-feel-terrible-after-too-many-drinks

Rogers talks about the myths of hangovers — and how hangovers can be an inflammatory response, like the flu.

Clotam is a sort of – it’s like a super-powered anti-inflammatory. It’s prescribed for migraines in Europe. And in fact, it did work – that it did seem to alleviate a lot of the symptoms of hangover. Now the problem is that it’s not in the U.S. pharmacopeia.

original papers:
Interventions for preventing or treating alcohol hangover: systematic review of randomised controlled trials.
BMJ. 2005 Dec 24;331(7531):1515-8.
Pittler MH, et al.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16373736
RESULTS:
Significant intergroup differences for overall symptom scores and individual symptoms were reported only for tolfenamic acid, gamma linolenic acid from B officinalis, and a yeast based preparation.
CONCLUSION:
No compelling evidence exists to suggest that any conventional or complementary intervention is effective for preventing or treating alcohol hangover.
The most effective way to avoid the symptoms of alcohol induced hangover is to practise abstinence or moderation.

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Hangover headache and prostaglandins: prophylactic treatment with tolfenamic acid.
Cephalalgia. 1983 Mar;3(1):31-6.
Kaivola S, et al.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6342813
Tolfenamic acid (TA), a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and action, was tested prophylactically against hangover symptoms in 30 healthy volunteers in a double-blind cross-over study. …
The plasma concentrations of PGE2 and TXB2 (a metabolite of thromboxane A2) were lower in the TA group during alcohol ingestion, while PGF2 alpha and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (a metabolite of prostacyclin) were unaffected. TXB2 correlated with blood alcohol levels in a U-shaped manner.