We don’t know enough about low-dose radiation risk
5 April 2011
The long-term risks to health of low levels of radiation are still poorly known, says David J. Brenner. A combination of more studies of exposed populations and basic research is needed.
We have been studying the risk of radiation since the discovery of radioactivity more than a century ago
with the exception of studies of a couple of specific cancers — thyroid cancer and leukaemia — no large-scale systematic cancer studies have been carried out on the exposed populations
companies have re-engineered cigarettes in recent decades, increasing the toxic components of smoke.
Surgeon General Adds New Risks To Long List Of Smoking’s Harms
January 17, 2014
an impressive list of disorders newly deemed to be caused by smoking. They include:
- facial deformities in babies born to smoking mothers,
- liver and colorectal cancer,
- age-related macular degeneration,
- ectopic pregnancy,
- rheumatoid arthritis and
- erectile dysfunction
“Smoking really is even worse than we knew,” Dr. Thomas Frieden, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Frieden says smoking is more lethal than it used to be. “Even though the Americans who smoke are smoking fewer cigarettes, the risk of dying among smokers is increasing,” he notes, quoting the new report.
companies have re-engineered cigarettes in recent decades, changing the way people inhale and increasing the toxic components of smoke.
The trend is striking. Between 1959 and 2010, the risk of lung cancer among women jumped from about three times that of those who never smoked to 26 times. Among men who smoke, the lung cancer rate more than doubled, from 12 times to 25 times the risk of never-smokers.
The CDC says changes in cigarette design and composition since the 1950s have shifted the pattern of lung cancers from a type called squamous cell carcinomas to adenocarcinomas. That’s one reason why smoking has become more deadly.
“e-cigarettes … I have grave concerns that they’re doing more harm than good.”