Physical training and Weight loss

Physical_training_and_weightPhysical training and weight loss

Diabetes – a global challenge
University of Copenhagen

Lifestyle interventions in obese children (Cochrane, 2014)

Lifestyle intervention for improving school achievement in overweight or obese children and adolescents.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Mar 14;3:CD009728.
Martin A1, Saunders DH, Shenkin SD, Sproule J.

The prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence is high.
Excessive body fat at a young age is likely to persist into adulthood and is associated with physical and psychosocial co-morbidities, as well as lower cognitive, school and later life achievement.
Lifestyle changes, including reduced caloric intake, decreased sedentary behaviour and increased physical activity, are recommended for prevention and treatment of child and adolescent obesity.
Evidence suggests that lifestyle interventions can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children of normal weight.
Similar beneficial effects may be seen in overweight or obese children and adolescents.

To assess whether lifestyle interventions (in the areas of diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and behavioural therapy) improve school achievement, cognitive function and future success in overweight or obese children and adolescents compared with standard care, waiting list control, no treatment or attention control.

Despite the large number of childhood obesity treatment trials, evidence regarding their impact on school achievement and cognitive abilities is lacking.
Existing studies have a range of methodological issues affecting the quality of evidence.
Multicomponent interventions targeting physical activity and healthy diet could benefit general school achievement, whereas a physical activity intervention delivered for childhood weight management could benefit mathematics achievement, executive function and working memory.
Although the effects are small, a very large number of children and adolescents could benefit from these interventions. Therefore health policy makers may wish to consider these potential additional benefits when promoting physical activity and healthy eating in schools.
Future obesity treatment trials are needed to examine overweight or obese children and adolescents and to report academic and cognitive as well as physical outcomes.

Exercise to improve sleep in insomnia (2013)

Exercise to improve sleep in insomnia: exploration of the bidirectional effects.
J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(8):819-824.
Baron KG; Reid KJ; Zee PC.

Exercise improves sleep quality, mood, and quality of life among older adults with insomnia.

Results suggest that sleep influences next day exercise rather than exercise influencing sleep.
The relationship between TST and next day exercise was stronger for those with shorter TST at baseline.
These results suggest that improving sleep may encourage exercise participation.

journalistic version:
Chronic Insomnia? Hitting The Treadmill Could Help … Eventually
August 15, 2013

After four months, adding 30 minutes of exercise, three times a week, bumped up insomniacs’ sleep by about 45 minutes each night, Baron says. “That’s huge. It’s as large or larger an effect than what you see with [sleep] drugs.”

Baron generally treats people who have chronically lousy sleep with cognitive behavioral therapy.
But she also recommends regular exercise for all her patients — 30 minutes of cardiovascular exercise, three to four times a week.

Marathon Training Lowers Heart Disease Risk

Impact of Physical Activity on CV Disease
March 29, 2014
American College of Cardiology

Another study of physical activity concluded that marathon training improved cardiovascular risk factors among middle-aged, recreational runners who prepared for the Boston Marathon.
Jodi L. Zilinski, MD, of Massachusetts General Hospital led the study of 45 male runners, ages 35 to 65, who trained for 18 weeks in advance of the 2013 marathon.
Their race preparation led to significant changes in cardiovascular risk: LDL was reduced by five percent overall among participants; total cholesterol fell four percent and triglycerides fell 15 percent.
The men collectively showed a four percent increase in peak oxygen consumption.

“Participants experienced cardiac remodeling,” Zilinski said. “Even with a relatively healthy population that was not exercise naive.”

journalistic version:
Marathon Training Lowers Heart Disease Risk In Middle-Aged Men
March 27, 2014

Cardiac Arrest during Long-Distance Running Races
Jonathan H. Kim, M.D., et al.
N Engl J Med 2012; 366:130-140January 12, 2012
Marathons and half-marathons are associated with a low overall risk of cardiac arrest and sudden death.
Cardiac arrest, most commonly attributable to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or atherosclerotic coronary disease, occurs primarily among male marathon participants; the incidence rate in this group increased during the past decade.

Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function

Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in middle age
The CARDIA Study
Published online before print April 2, 2014

Objective: To investigate whether greater cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with better cognitive function 25 years later.

Methods: We studied 2,747 participants in the community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study of black and white men and women aged 18 to 30 years at recruitment in 1985–1986 (baseline year 0). Symptom-limited maximal treadmill test durations at years 0 and 20 provided measures of CRF. Cognitive tests at year 25 measured verbal memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT]), psychomotor speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST]), and executive function (Stroop Test).

Results: Per minute of baseline CRF, the RAVLT was 0.12 words recalled higher (standard error [SE] = 0.03, p < 0.0001), the DSST was 0.92 digits higher (SE = 0.13, p < 0.0001), and the Stroop Test score was 0.52 lower (better performance, SE = 0.11, p < 0.0001), after accounting for race, sex, age, education, and clinical center. Compared with the lowest quartile of CRF, each cognitive test was 21% to 34% of an SD better in the highest CRF quartile. Further adjustment for lifestyle and clinical measures attenuated coefficients for RAVLT and DSST slightly, while the coefficient predicting the Stroop Test lost more than half its value (p = 0.07). Analysis in the subset of 1,957 participants who also completed the year-20 treadmill test showed that 20-year change in CRF was positively associated only with DSST (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Better verbal memory and faster psychomotor speed at ages 43 to 55 years were clearly associated with better CRF 25 years earlier.

journalistic version:


Cognitive Fitness (online course from Harvard Health Publishing)
accessed: July 2019

Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans

Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans

moderate-intensity physical activity, such as brisk walking
CDC: brisk walking is at a pace of three miles per hour or more (but not racewalking) or roughly 20 minutes per mile
Fitter people still will not be in a moderately intense exercise zone at that pace.
A pace of 15 minutes per mile, or four miles per hour, is more likely to put fitter people into a moderately intense exercise zone.

How Much Physical Activity Do Adults Need?

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