Type of Toy & Parent-Infant Communication

Association of the Type of Toy Used During Play With the Quantity and Quality of Parent-Infant Communication
Anna V. Sosa, PhD
JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(2):132-137.
http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2478386

Conclusions and Relevance:
Play with electronic toys is associated with decreased quantity and quality of language input compared with play with books or traditional toys.
To promote early language development, play with electronic toys should be discouraged. Traditional toys may be a valuable alternative for parent-infant play time if book reading is not a preferred activity.

journalistic version:
http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/01/06/461920593/kids-and-screen-time-a-peek-at-upcoming-guidance

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INTERACTIVE SIMULATIONS FOR SCIENCE AND MATH

Science education: Spare me the lecture
Nature 425, 234-236 (18 September 2003)
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/425234a.html

Evidence of this failure is provided by assessments such as the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), a multiple-choice test designed to examine students’ understanding of Newton’s laws of mechanics.
http://www.flaguide.org/tools/diagnostic/force_concept_inventory.php
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Force_Concept_Inventory

Peer Instruction: Ten Years of Experience and Results.
Catherine H. Crouch and Eric Mazur.
Am. J. Phys., 69, 970-977 (2001).

ConceptTests
http://mazur.harvard.edu/education/pi.php
http://mazur.harvard.edu/education/educationmenu.php
sets of qualitative exam questions that rely on understanding a concept rather than simply using physical formulae. His methods have been adopted by physics teachers around the United States and have also been adapted for chemistry, astronomy, geology and mathematics courses.

INTERACTIVE SIMULATIONS FOR SCIENCE AND MATH
https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulations/category/by-level/elementary-school
Nobel Laureate Carl Wieman, the PhET Interactive Simulations project at the University of Colorado Boulder creates free interactive math and science simulations.

R. R. Hake Am. J. Phys. 66, 64–74; 1998

some newcomers to the field are in danger of wasting their enthusiasm on experimental teaching projects that largely repeat what has gone before. “Does someone need to test peer instruction again? No, we know it works and now we’ve moved on to more sophisticated things,”

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Learning Science Through Computer Games and Simulations
2011
https://www.nap.edu/catalog/13078/learning-science-through-computer-games-and-simulations

Distributed cognition

The modern learning sciences have stressed the ways in which human thinking and learning go beyond the processes going on inside people’s heads. One way in which they have done this is to focus on “distributed cognition” or “distributed knowledge.”[26]
These terms are meant to describe the ways in which people can act smarter when they combine or integrate their own individual knowledge with knowledge that is built into tools, technologies, environments, or other people.
We have already seen in the discussion of SWAT4 how some video games can distribute intelligence between the player and artificially intelligent virtual characters.
p. 32

from:
Gee, James Paul. “Learning and Games.
https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2015/11/01/the-ecology-of-games

see also:
https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2014/12/27/augmented-intelligence

Cognitive Environments
accessed: November 1, 2015
http://researcher.ibm.com/researcher/view_group.php?id=5417

Models and modeling are basic to human play

Models and modeling are basic to human play. They are basic to a great many other human enterprises as well, for example, science (a diagram of a cell), architecture (model buildings), engineering (model bridges), art (the clay figure the sculptor makes before making the real statue), video and film (storyboards), writing (outlines), cooking (recipes), travel (maps), and many more.
p. 28

why are models and modeling important to learning?
Because while people learn from their interpreted experiences—as we have argued above—models and modeling allow specific aspects of experience to be interrogated and used for problem solving in ways that lead from concreteness to abstraction.[21]
p. 30

from:
Gee, James Paul. “Learning and Games.
https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2015/11/01/the-ecology-of-games

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What can be modeled in Scratch?
(from the Science STAAR April 2015)

mirrors and image on an object

electric circuit
July 18, 2013
https://scratch.mit.edu/projects/11486153
the user builds a circuit by placing the parts on the wires

electric circuit
by asnewbrain
Mar 1, 2015
https://scratch.mit.edu/projects/49987426
electron movement is simulated

electric circuit
by Dan102
Feb 16, 2013
https://scratch.mit.edu/projects/3108777

lamp
2007
https://scratch.mit.edu/projects/1324

simple electric circuit
2013
https://scratch.mit.edu/projects/10114232

Nov 2010
https://scratch.mit.edu/projects/1430989
drag and drop the two wires, the battery …

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models123

https://www.ibiology.org