Benjamin Hardy: The 100 Percent Rule

The 100 Percent Rule That Will Change Your Life
Benjamin Hardy
Aug 1, 2019

Why most people struggle when it comes to losing weight or getting rid of bad habits? Is there a chance to get unstuck from unnecessary fallbacks and permanently change our bad habits? In this TEDxTalk, Benjamin shares the secret on how making a radical change is not only possible but required to live a life of integrity, meaning, and purpose. Benjamin Hardy has been the #1 most-read writer on since late 2015. He is the author of Willpower Doesn’t Work


An information theoretical approach to prefrontal executive function.

The cascade model of cognitive control.

An information theoretical approach to prefrontal executive function.
Trends Cogn Sci. 2007 Jun;11(6):229-35.
Koechlin E, Summerfield C.

The prefrontal cortex subserves executive control–that is, the ability to select actions or thoughts in relation to internal goals.

Here, we propose a theory that draws upon concepts from information theory to describe the architecture of executive control in the lateral prefrontal cortex.
Supported by evidence from brain imaging in human subjects, the model proposes that action selection is guided by hierarchically ordered control signals, processed in a network of brain regions organized along the anterior-posterior axis of the lateral prefrontal cortex.
The theory clarifies how executive control can operate as a unitary function, despite the requirement that information be integrated across multiple distinct, functionally specialized prefrontal regions.

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Google: Cited by 383

Orbitofrontal cortex and decision-making

Cross-species studies of orbitofrontal cortex and value-based decision-making
Jonathan D Wallis
Nature Neuroscience  15, 13–19 (2012)

Recent work has emphasized the role that orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has in value-based decision-making.

However, it is also clear that a number of discrepancies have arisen when comparing the findings from animal models to those from humans. Here, we examine several possibilities that might explain these discrepancies, including anatomical difference between species, the behavioral tasks used to probe decision-making and the methodologies used to assess neural function.
Understanding how these differences affect the interpretation of experimental results will help us to better integrate future results from animal models.
This will enable us to fully realize the benefits of using multiple approaches to understand OFC function.

Computers Decide Whether You Will Get Your Next Job

Will A Computer Decide Whether You Get Your Next Job?
NPR. December 20, 2013

a couple of years ago, Xerox hired a company to help the company do a better job of finding the right people.
This company, called Evolv, began collecting lots of data about the people applying for jobs at Xerox call centers.
The applicants had to answer extensive surveys with questions like: “Which word better characterizes you: ‘consistent’ or ‘witty’?”
Applicants were tested on pattern recognition and multitasking.

With these new techniques, Xerox says it has been able to improve its hiring and significantly reduce turnover at its call centers.

Other companies that parse employee data are finding surprising results.
Michael Rosenbaum of Pegged Software, a company that works with hospitals, says one piece of conventional wisdom is flat-out wrong: “We find zero statistically significant correlation between a college degree or a master’s degree and success as a software developer.”

Of course, using data to drive hiring decisions has its problems. Employers guided by data could wind up skipping over promising candidates.
But Barbara Marder of the consulting firm Mercer points out that the way companies hire now has its own flaws.

“A lot of these new techniques do have the potential to eliminate biases,” Marder says.

How Do You Find A Job? Ask The Algorithm
November 06, 2009
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Why Cleaned Wastewater Stays Dirty In Our Minds

Why Cleaned Wastewater Stays Dirty In Our Minds
August 16, 2011

About 14 years ago, … a number of California’s local water agencies were proposing a different approach to the state’s perennial water problems. They wanted to build plants that would clean local wastewater — aka sewage water — and after that cleaning, make it available as drinking water.
But, says Haddad, these proposals were consistently shot down by an unwilling public.

“The public wasn’t really examinin g the science involved,” Haddad says. “They were just saying no.” This infuriated the water engineers, who thought the public’s response was fundamentally irrational

“A scientific answer is not going to satisfy someone who is feeling revulsion,” says Haddad. “You have to approach it in a different way.”

Psychological Contagion
Carol Nemeroff is one of the psychologists Haddad recruited to help him with his research.
She works at the University of Southern Maine and studies psychological contagion.
The term refers to the habit we all have of thinking — consciously or not — that once something has had contact with another thing, their parts are in some way joined.

“It’s a very broad feature of human thinking,” Nemeroff explains. “Everywhere we look, you can see contagion thinking.”

Contagion thinking isn’t always negative. Often, we think it is some essence of goodness that has somehow been transmitted to an object — think of a holy relic or a piece of family jewelry.

Nemeroff offers one example: “If I have my grandmother’s ring versus an exact replica of my grandmother’s ring, my grandmother’s ring is actually better because she was in contact with it — she wore it. So we act like objects — their history is part of the object.”

And according to Nemeroff, there are very good reasons why people think like this. As a basic rule of thumb for making decisions, when we’re uncertain about realities in the world, contagion thinking has probably served us well. “If it’s icky, don’t touch it,” says Nemeroff.

The conclusion?
“It is quite difficult to get the cognitive sewage out of the water, even after the real sewage is gone,” Nemeroff says.

Around 60 percent of people are unwilling to drink water that has had direct contact with sewage, according to their research.

But as Nemeroff points out, there is a certain irony to this position, at least when viewed from the perspective of a water engineer. You see, we are all already basically drinking water that has at one point been sewage.
After all, “we are all downstream from someone else,” as Nemeroff says. “And even the nice fresh pure spring water? Birds and fish poop in it. So there is no water that has not been pooped in somewhere.”