Motivated reasoning

Why “scout mindset” is crucial to good judgment
Julia Galef
Apr 4, 2016


What makes a scout?
Being curious.
Being open.
Being grounded.

intrigued instead of defensive


Motivated reasoning


An information theoretical approach to prefrontal executive function.

The cascade model of cognitive control.

An information theoretical approach to prefrontal executive function.
Trends Cogn Sci. 2007 Jun;11(6):229-35.
Koechlin E, Summerfield C.

The prefrontal cortex subserves executive control–that is, the ability to select actions or thoughts in relation to internal goals.

Here, we propose a theory that draws upon concepts from information theory to describe the architecture of executive control in the lateral prefrontal cortex.
Supported by evidence from brain imaging in human subjects, the model proposes that action selection is guided by hierarchically ordered control signals, processed in a network of brain regions organized along the anterior-posterior axis of the lateral prefrontal cortex.
The theory clarifies how executive control can operate as a unitary function, despite the requirement that information be integrated across multiple distinct, functionally specialized prefrontal regions.

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Orbitofrontal cortex and decision-making

Cross-species studies of orbitofrontal cortex and value-based decision-making
Jonathan D Wallis
Nature Neuroscience  15, 13–19 (2012)

Recent work has emphasized the role that orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has in value-based decision-making.

However, it is also clear that a number of discrepancies have arisen when comparing the findings from animal models to those from humans. Here, we examine several possibilities that might explain these discrepancies, including anatomical difference between species, the behavioral tasks used to probe decision-making and the methodologies used to assess neural function.
Understanding how these differences affect the interpretation of experimental results will help us to better integrate future results from animal models.
This will enable us to fully realize the benefits of using multiple approaches to understand OFC function.