PEGylation, Then and Now

PEG and PEGylation, Then and Now—A Historical Commentary and Review
Elsevier Journals, 2017

The Risky Side of PEGylation of Nanomedicines and Biologicals: Immunogenicity and Immune Reactivity
2017

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Vaccines Are Coming but …

Vaccines Are Coming but They Won’t End Covid-19 Anytime Soon
In the Philippines, inoculating the necessary 60 million to 70 million people could take up to five years, officials say
https://www.wsj.com/articles/vaccines-are-coming-but-they-wont-end-covid-19-anytime-soon-11607864417
By Feliz Solomon
WSJ. Dec. 13, 2020

… Soumya Swaminathan, chief scientist of the World Health Organization. She cited the hepatitis B vaccine, saying it took 30 years after its introduction in rich countries to reach low- and middle-income countries.

Dr. John Campbell: The Next Few Months

The next few months
July 17, 2020
Dr. John Campbell

Professor Jonathan Van-Tam
(England’s deputy chief medical officer)

“The reality is, until we get a vaccine, and only if we get a vaccine that is really capable of suppressing disease levels, will we ever be “out of this””

“From that perspective, we may have to live, and learn to live, with this virus in the long-term. Certainly for many months to come, if not years.”

We are still at the start of this.

Dr. William Haseltine on Herd Immunity

Herd Immunity for Covid-19 Is ‘a Fantasy’: Dr. Haseltine
June 16, 2020
Bloomberg Markets and Finance

William Haseltine, who designed the strategy to develop the first treatment for HIV/AIDS and is now chair and president of consulting group ACCESS Health International

02:34
We are going back to a period at the beginning of my life, when antibiotics were just coming in–at the end of WWII–for civilian use. Penicillin had been discovered.

But before that, when we were building our railroads, when we were building our cities, we lived with the possibility that tomorrow will not come. Everybody knew that an infection could spell death. We are back to that era.

It’s something that many of us predicted: “There would come a time, there would come a disease that would take us back to the pre-antibiotic days.”
The world doesn’t end. Your world may end … but mankind goes on. We built the world at a time before vaccines and antibiotics. So we will prevail. But we will pay a price.

Covid-19 Vaccine Is 12 to 18 Months Away, Harvard’s Jha Says

Covid-19 Vaccine Is 12 to 18 Months Away, Harvard’s Jha Says
April 21, 2020
Bloomberg Markets and Finance

The Race to Find a Vaccine for Covid-19
April 22, 2020
Bloomberg Markets and Finance
Sanofi > dengue: in some patients, the vaccine made the disease worse; and it didn’t show up in the 10-15 years they were developing it.

A Top Immunologist on Why Coronavirus Is Killing More African-Americans
WSJ. April 22, 2020
https://www.wsj.com/articles/a-top-immunologist-on-why-coronavirus-is-killing-more-african-americans-11587556800
All the other major vaccines we have—for measles, Ebola—have taken a minimum of seven years, and some as long as 40 years.

Bill Gates: Here’s when we could expect a coronavirus vaccine
April 27, 2020

In Search of COVID-19 Immunity (April 16, 2020)

In Search of COVID-19 Immunity
April 16, 2020
The Agenda with Steve Paikin

The race is on to find treatments for COVID-19. One of the most promising options being tested in Canada and around the world includes using antibodies from the blood plasma of recovered patients to help others fight the disease. The Agenda discusses the trial, as well as what is known about building immunity to the virus.