Emergence (process)

[philosophy, systems theory, science, and art] a process whereby larger entities, patterns, and regularities arise through interactions among smaller or simpler entities that themselves do not exhibit such properties

“emergence” would have clarified–even made redundant–the discussion:

Time is an emergent phenomenon

Emergence and Complexity
Stanford. May 21, 2010
Robert Sapolsky
cellular automaton

butterfly effects

gradients of information
gradients of attraction and repulsion
gradients provide a lot of the optimization in the systems
neighbor-to-neighbor interactions
generalists work better in these systems than specialists
bottom-up systems
attractors and chaos