Emergence (process)

Emergence
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emergence
[philosophy, systems theory, science, and art] a process whereby larger entities, patterns, and regularities arise through interactions among smaller or simpler entities that themselves do not exhibit such properties

“emergence” would have clarified–even made redundant–the discussion:
http://www.npr.org/blogs/13.7/2015/01/16/377631652/making-a-brain-map-that-we-can-use

Time is an emergent phenomenon
https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2014/03/11/time-emerges-from-entanglement

Emergence and Complexity
Stanford. May 21, 2010
Robert Sapolsky
cellular automaton

butterfly effects

gradients of information
gradients of attraction and repulsion
gradients provide a lot of the optimization in the systems
neighbor-to-neighbor interactions
generalists work better in these systems than specialists
bottom-up systems
attractors and chaos