A Theory of Human Motivation
A. H. Maslow (1943)
Psychological Review, 50, 370-396
the appearance of one need USUALLY rests on the prior satisfaction of another, more pre-potent need.
any classification of motivations [p. 371] must deal with the problem of levels of specificity or generalization the motives to be classified.
It is far easier to perceive and to criticize the aspects in motivation theory than to remedy them.
it seems impossible as well as useless to make any list of fundamental physiological needs for they can come to almost any number one might wish, depending on the degree of specificity of description.
[c.f. https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2013/07/21/hayakawas-ladder-of-abstractions ]
sleepiness, … are homeostatic, has not yet been demonstrated.
it is MOST LIKELY that the major motivation would be the physiological needs rather than any others. A person who is lacking food, safety, love, and esteem WOULD MOST PROBABLY hunger for food more strongly than for anything else.
Freedom, love, community feeling, respect, philosophy, may all be waved aside as fripperies which are useless since they fail to fill the stomach. Such a man may fairly be said to live by bread alone.
[c.f. https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2017/06/24/pygmalion-1938 ]
The average American citizen is experiencing appetite rather than hunger when he says “I am [p. 375] hungry.”
the dominating goal is a strong determinant not only of his current world-outlook and philosophy but also of his philosophy of the future.
[c.f. embodied cognition]
[c.f. Seeing what we expect to see]
One reason for the clearer appearance of the threat or danger reaction in infants, is that they do not inhibit this reaction at all, whereas adults in our society have been taught to inhibit it at all costs.
The tendency to have some religion or world-philosophy that organizes the universe and the men in it into some sort of satisfactorily coherent, meaningful whole is also in part motivated by safety-seeking.
Here too we may list science and philosophy in general as partially motivated by the safety needs (we shall see later that there are also other motivations to scientific, philosophical or religious endeavor).