How steep is that hill (0 – 90 degrees)?

How your bodily state affects your perception: Simone Schnall at TEDxOxbridge

Experiment 1:
How steep is that hill (0 – 90 degrees)?

Perception of the physical environment

a resource: social support (we can rely on other people and they help us)
Does social support change perception?
Experiment 2:
Yes, just bringing to mind that you have certain social resources available changes perception.

Social power: controlling resources for other people
Experiment 3:
Roughly, how heavy is this box? Tell us in lbs.
(a group previously thought of a time when they were powerful, when they were in charge of things, when other people were relying on them)



A Theory of Human Motivation (1943)

A Theory of Human Motivation
A. H. Maslow (1943)
Psychological Review, 50, 370-396

the appearance of one need USUALLY rests on the prior satisfaction of another, more pre-potent need.

any classification of motivations [p. 371] must deal with the problem of levels of specificity or generalization the motives to be classified.

It is far easier to perceive and to criticize the aspects in motivation theory than to remedy them.

it seems impossible as well as useless to make any list of fundamental physiological needs for they can come to almost any number one might wish, depending on the degree of specificity of description.
[c.f. ]

sleepiness, … are homeostatic, has not yet been demonstrated.

it is MOST LIKELY that the major motivation would be the physiological needs rather than any others. A person who is lacking food, safety, love, and esteem WOULD MOST PROBABLY hunger for food more strongly than for anything else.

Freedom, love, community feeling, respect, philosophy, may all be waved aside as fripperies which are useless since they fail to fill the stomach. Such a man may fairly be said to live by bread alone.
[c.f. ]

The average American citizen is experiencing appetite rather than hunger when he says “I am [p. 375] hungry.”

the dominating goal is a strong determinant not only of his current world-outlook and philosophy but also of his philosophy of the future.
[c.f. framing]
[c.f. embodied cognition]
[c.f. Seeing what we expect to see]

One reason for the clearer appearance of the threat or danger reaction in infants, is that they do not inhibit this reaction at all, whereas adults in our society have been taught to inhibit it at all costs.

The tendency to have some religion or world-philosophy that organizes the universe and the men in it into some sort of satisfactorily coherent, meaningful whole is also in part motivated by safety-seeking.
Here too we may list science and philosophy in general as partially motivated by the safety needs (we shall see later that there are also other motivations to scientific, philosophical or religious endeavor).


How the Body Knows Its Mind (2015)

How the Body Knows Its Mind
The Surprising Power of the Physical Environment to Influence How You Think and Feel
By Sian Beilock. January 2015

The way we move affects our thoughts, our decisions, and even our preferences for particular products. Called “embodied cognition,” this new science—of which Beilock is a foremost researcher—illuminates the power of the body and its physical surroundings to shape how we think, feel, and behave.

Beilock’s findings are as varied as they are surprising. For example, pacing around the room can enhance creativity; gesturing during a speech can help ensure that you don’t draw a blank; kids learn better when their bodies are part of the learning process; walking in nature boosts concentration skills; Botox users experience less depression; and much more. From the tricks used by advertisers to the ways body language can improve your memory, …


Handbook on embodied cognition 2014


Activity and Imagined Activity

Activity and Imagined Activity Can Enhance Young Children’s Reading Comprehension
Arthur M. Glenberg, et al.
Journal of Educational Psychology 96 (2004): 424–36.

This study describes an experiment in which young children read a passage and manipulate plastic figures so that they can portray the actions and relationships in the passage. By manipulating the figures, the children get a structured, embodied experience with a clear goal (portray the action in the text). After some practice doing this, the children were asked to simply imagine manipulating the figures. This is a request to engage in simulation in their heads. As a posttest, the children read a final passage without any prompting.

Children who completed the sequence of embodied experience then simulation were better at remembering and drawing inferences about the new passage, as compared to children who received no training. They were better as well, compared to children who were instructed to only imagine the passage.
And, most interestingly, they were better compared to children who manipulated the figures without the intermediate instructions to imagine manipulating.
Encouraging simulation through the initial use of physical enactment helped the children learn a new reading comprehension strategy, namely a strategy whereby they called on their experiences in the world to build simulations for understanding a text in specific ways.

cited by:
Gee, James Paul. “Learning and Games.
The Ecology of Games: Connecting Youth, Games, and Learning. Edited by Katie Salen. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Media and Learning. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2008. 21–40.