Ascertainment bias

ascertainment_bias_ncbi.nlm.nih.govCatalogue of Biases Collaboration
Spencer EA, Brassey J,
Ascertainment bias.
In: Catalogue Of Bias 2017:

“Specific learning disorder is more common in males than in females (ratios range from about 2:1 to 3:1) and cannot be attributed to factors such as ascertainment bias”
DSM-5, 2013. p. 73

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Social priming

Psychologists strike a blow for reproducibility
Thirty-six labs collaborate to check 13 earlier findings.
Ed Yong
26 November 2013

gain-versus-loss framing, in which people are more prepared to take risks to avoid losses, rather than make gains1

anchoring, an effect in which the first piece of information a person receives can introduce bias to later decisions2


Disputed results a fresh blow for social psychology
Failure to replicate intelligence-priming effects ignites row in research community.
Alison Abbott
30 April 2013

Thinking about a professor just before you take an intelligence test makes you perform better than if you think about football hooligans. Or does it?

unconscious thought theory, which is concerned with unconscious decision making, is not the same as intelligence priming


Nobel laureate challenges psychologists to clean up their act
Social-priming research needs “daisy chain” of replication.
Ed Yong
03 October 2012

social priming, the study of how subtle cues can unconsciously influence our thoughts or behaviour. For example, volunteers might walk more slowly down a corridor after seeing words related to old age1, or fare better in general-knowledge tests after writing down the attributes of a typical professor.

Automation bias

Complacency and bias in human use of automation: an attentional integration.
Hum Factors. 2010 Jun;52(3):381-410.
Parasuraman R, Manzey DH.

Our aim was to review empirical studies of complacency and bias in human interaction with automated and decision support systems and provide an integrated theoretical model for their explanation.

Automation-related complacency and automation bias have typically been considered separately and independently.

Studies on complacency and automation bias were analyzed with respect to the cognitive processes involved.

Automation complacency occurs under conditions of multiple-task load, when manual tasks compete with the automated task for the operator’s attention. Automation complacency is found in both naive and expert participants and cannot be overcome with simple practice. Automation bias results in making both omission and commission errors when decision aids are imperfect. Automation bias occurs in both naive and expert participants, cannot be prevented by training or instructions, and can affect decision making in individuals as well as in teams. While automation bias has been conceived of as a special case of decision bias, our analysis suggests that it also depends on attentional processes similar to those involved in automation-related complacency.

Complacency and automation bias represent different manifestations of overlapping automation-induced phenomena, with attention playing a central role. An integrated model of complacency and automation bias shows that they result from the dynamic interaction of personal, situational, and automation-related characteristics.

The integrated model and attentional synthesis provides a heuristic framework for further research on complacency and automation bias and design options for mitigating such effects in automated and decision support systems.

Creativity as a Life Skill

Creativity as a Life Skill
Gerard Puccio at TEDxGramercy
Dec 23, 2012

Gerard J. Puccio, Ph.D.

Gerard is chair and professor of the International Center for Studies in Creativity at Buffalo State, a unique academic department that offers the world’s only Master of Science degree in Creativity and Change Leadership.

In the face of a fast changing and increasingly more complex world, many argue that creativity and innovation are crucial 21st century skills. Unfortunately schools and organizations seem to be ill equipped to promote this critical skill. Discover what you can do to reclaim and sustain this life skill.

conformity bias

Everything looks like a nail

Abraham Kaplan (1964): “I call it the law of the instrument: Give a small boy a hammer, and he will find that everything he encounters needs pounding.”

Abraham Maslow’s hammer: “if all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail” (The Psychology of Science, 1966)

narrow-minded instrumentalism, déformation professionnelle

an anti-pattern