Negation in Ontologies

Inconsistencies, Negations and Changes in Ontologies
Proceeding of the 21st National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Boston, US, July 16-20, 2006. AAAI.
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.107.2707&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Giorgos Flouris, Zhisheng Huang, Jeff Z. Pan, Dimitris Plexousakis, Holger Wache

related:
An introduction to Description Logics and Ontology Languages
Magdalena Ortiz
June 2016
https://www.amw-rdm.org/amw-school-1

Das Nicht im Satz
2010
https://www.ici-berlin.org/events/werner-hamacher

Combining Ontologies with Rules (Two Different Worlds?)
2007
https://slideplayer.com/slide/4832454

examples:

    • Viruses do not have any capacity for locomotion and, therefore, the collision event is simply a random process determined by diffusion.
      Sherris Medical Microbiology, 7e ©2018 > Chapter 6: Viruses—Basic Concepts > VIRUS REPLICATION CYCLE Adsorption or Attachment
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No todo conocimiento puede codificarse

Reconocemos que no todo conocimiento puede codificarse.
(La complejidad del conocimiento: el conocimiento tacito frente al explicito. p. 37)

Smart Things to Know About Knowledge Management
Thomas M. Koulopoulus and Carl Frappaolo
1999.

picture:
Knowledge Management, 2nd Edition
Carl Frappaolo
March 2006, Capstone
http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1841127051.html

related:
https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2014/10/11/tacit-knowledge

Ontology > Exception

apicoplasts have been detected in all apicomplexan parasites studied, with the exception of Cryptosporidium
http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/the-apicoplast-an-organelle-with-a-green-14231555

DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus by using host RNA polymerase for transcription and either host or viral DNA polymerase for replication (exception are poxviruses that replicate in the cytoplasm).
Sherris Medical Microbiology, 7e ©2018 > Chapter 6: Viruses—Basic Concepts

Most RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm—the immediate site of entry with the exception of influenza viruses and the retroviruses that replicate in the nucleus.
Sherris Medical Microbiology, 7e ©2018 > Chapter 6: Viruses—Basic Concepts

related:
https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2016/02/15/semantic-web-services-inherently-unreliable-2012

Ontology resources


Symptom ontology
https://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/SYMP

http://www.ontobee.org

The DBpedia Ontology (2014)
accessed: January 3, 2015
http://wiki.dbpedia.org/Ontology2014?v=l4h

cited by:
NLP
Stanford, June 2012
https://class.coursera.org/nlp/lecture/138
http://online.stanford.edu/course/natural-language-processing

related:

Freebase
https://www.freebase.com

EuroWordNet
http://www.illc.uva.nl/EuroWordNet

BabelNet
http://babelnet.org

openthesaurus.de
https://www.openthesaurus.de

Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary
https://www.nlm.nih.gov/news/mplusdictionary03.html

ScienceDirect
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/index/r
=============================================
site:sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience => 13,200 pages

http://www.nature.com/subjects/signs-and-symptoms

https://www.kenhub.com/en/atlas/interstitial-lamellae

https://www.ouhsc.edu/histology/Text%20Sections/Bone.html

2008
http://act.downstate.edu/courseware/histomanual/bone.html

http://www.histology.leeds.ac.uk/bone/bone_types.php

2013
http://www.gwc.maricopa.edu/home_pages/crimando/BIO201/jcastu53.htm

2008
http://wberesford.hsc.wvu.edu/histolch7.htm
http://wberesford.hsc.wvu.edu

intramembranous ossification
2013

The Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology
2012
https://books.google.com/books?id=Z1t9icSzRi0C

2018
https://www.genscript.com/molecular-biology-glossary/3099/virion

2015
http://www.microbiologybook.org/mhunt/glossary.htm

https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/understanding-hiv-aids/glossary

https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pulmonary-disorders/symptoms-of-pulmonary-disorders/cough-in-adults