How to Take Pictures of Water Using Long Exposures
By Bill Fortney
- Set the ISO to the lowest possible speed—usually ISO 200 or Low 1.0.
- Set the camera on A for Aperture Priority Automatic. Set the aperture to a small opening like f/22 or f/16—the camera will automatically set a shutter speed. The best shutter speeds seem to be between two and eight seconds
- Attach an electronic cable release so the camera can be fired without shaking the entire rig.
A very fast shutter speed would be 1/1000 second, and that speed would freeze most action in its tracks.
A slow shutter speed like 1/30 second would blur a person casually strolling by. Most cameras offer a wide range of shutter speeds, from as long as 30 seconds to as short as 1/8000 second.
Photoshop Elements: Supported File Formats
Photoshop Elements 11 and later > File formats supported for importing:
Camera Raw-compatible Adobe applications
Photoshop Elements 11: Camera Raw 7.1 – 7.4
To edit D810 Raw files in Elements 12 you’ll have to download the free Adobe DNG converter, convert all Raw files to DNG format then edit the DNGs in Elements 12
Digital Negative (DNG)
Understanding maximum aperture
How Aperture Affects Depth of Field
How Aperture Affects Shutter Speed
ISO 6:1993 method of determining film speed for black-and-white film.
Determining film speed
Film speed is found from a plot of optical density vs. log of exposure for the film, known as the D–log H curve or Hurter–Driffield curve.
Four variables are available to the photographer to obtain the desired effect: lighting, film speed, f-number (aperture size), and shutter speed (exposure time).
Digital cameras have far surpassed film in terms of sensitivity to light, with ISO equivalent speeds of up to 409,600, a number that is unfathomable in the realm of conventional film photography. Faster processors, as well as advances in software noise reduction techniques allow this type of processing to be executed the moment the photo is captured, allowing photographers to store images that have a higher level of refinement and would have been prohibitively time consuming to process with earlier generations of digital camera hardware.
Nikon D810A (June 2015)> ISO Sensitivity
https://franzcalvo.wordpress.com/2015/06/23/nikon-d810a ISO 200 – 12,800
Lo-1 (ISO 100)
Hi-1 (ISO 25,600)
Hi-2 (ISO 51,200)