This Is Your Brain. This Is Your Brain On Music
September 10, 2014
process not only music but speech, too. That’s because the two aren’t that different. They have three common denominators — pitch, timing and timbre — and the brain uses the same circuitry to make sense of them all.
These children often hear fewer words by age 5 than other kids do.
And that’s a problem, Kraus says, because “in the absence of stimulation, the nervous system … hungry for stimulation … will make things up. So, in the absence of sound, what we saw is that there was just more random background activity, which you might think of as static.”
In addition to that “neural noise,” as Kraus calls it, ability to process sound — like telling the difference between someone saying “ba” and “ga” — requires microsecond precision in the brain. And many kids raised in poverty, Kraus says, simply have a harder time doing it; individual sounds can seem “blurry” to the brain.
Why The Improvement?
It goes back to pitch, timing and timbre. Kraus argues that learning music improves the brain’s ability to process all three, which helps kids pick up language, too. Consonants and vowels become clearer, and the brain can make sense of them more quickly.
Music Enrichment Programs Improve the Neural Encoding of Speech in At-Risk Children
The Journal of Neuroscience, 3 September 2014, 34(36): 11913-11918
Nina Kraus, et al.
Musicians are often reported to have enhanced neurophysiological functions, especially in the auditory system. Musical training is thought to improve nervous system function by focusing attention on meaningful acoustic cues, and these improvements in auditory processing cascade to language and cognitive skills. Correlational studies have reported musician enhancements in a variety of populations across the life span. In light of these reports, educators are considering the potential for co-curricular music programs to provide auditory-cognitive enrichment to children during critical developmental years. To date, however, no studies have evaluated biological changes following participation in existing, successful music education programs. We used a randomized control design to investigate whether community music participation induces a tangible change in auditory processing. The community music training was a longstanding and successful program that provides free music instruction to children from underserved backgrounds who stand at high risk for learning and social problems. Children who completed 2 years of music training had a stronger neurophysiological distinction of stop consonants, a neural mechanism linked to reading and language skills. One year of training was insufficient to elicit changes in nervous system function; beyond 1 year, however, greater amounts of instrumental music training were associated with larger gains in neural processing. We therefore provide the first direct evidence that community music programs enhance the neural processing of speech in at-risk children, suggesting that active and repeated engagement with sound changes neural function.